Name: Thuraya

Text: Thuraya Monitoring System

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

1

Thuraya Monitoring System
1- The Thuraya Personal Satellite Communications System
The Thuraya network has been in operation since early 2001, and is currently based on the
Thuraya-2 geostationary satellite in an inclined orbit at a longitude of approximately 44° East.
The Thuraya system provides telecommunications coverage to Europe, North, Central and
some parts of Southern Africa, the Middle East, West and Central Asia, and the Asian
Subcontinent, including more than 110 countries. Using a reduced capacity Thuraya-1 satellite
at 98° East, provides some areas of the Far-East. In January 2007 the Thuraya-3 satellite was
launched into the current location of the Thuraya-1 satellite, this new satellite has extended the
coverage area of the Thuraya network to areas of Central and Eastern Russia and the Far East,
including the eastern and south-eastern areas of mainland Asia, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia,
Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea.

Figure 1 – Map Showing Current Commercial Coverage from the Thuraya-2 Satellite
Since its introduction, the Thuraya system has proven to be extremely popular and exceeded
the 150,000 subscriber barrier by the mid-2003, and it is estimated to currently have in the
region of 340,000 subscribers Thuraya forecast that they will ultimately achieve 1.75 million
subscribers. One of its main appeals is to people living or traveling in the remote areas of
Africa, the Middle East and Asia, where terrestrial infrastructure is not in place. The Thuraya
network is designed to support 13,750 simultaneous telephone calls, and in some countries
typical call levels are known to exceed 2,000 calls per hour.

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

2

2- The Strategic Thuraya Monitoring System
2.1- Principles of the Strategic Thuraya Monitoring System Operation
The strategic Thuraya Monitoring System (TMS) offered by TRL is designed to passively
intercept downlinks from the Thuraya satellite at C-Band and L-Band.

Figure 2 – Principle of TMS Operation
An L-Band antenna receives transmissions from the network to the Thuraya handset (MES),
and a C-band antenna receives transmissions from the Thuraya handset to the network via the
satellite.
The new system is designed to provide full duplex call interception and recording for all calls
passing through a cluster of seven spotbeams centered on the geographical location of the
installed system. It may be possible to perform duplex call intercept on other nearby
spotbeams, but this cannot be guaranteed due to frequency reuse implemented on the Thuraya
network at L-Band.
Additionally, with the inclusion of the optional Transportable Remote L-Band Monitoring
System, all calls passing through an additional cluster of seven spotbeams centered on the
geographical position of the remote system, may be intercepted and recorded.
In addition to the call intercept, the strategic TMS has the capability to monitor call activity for all
spotbeams transmitted by the Thuraya satellite, by receiving the C-band signaling information.
The proposed system has the capacity to monitor 25 such spotbeams.
Where the system is able to perform C- and L-Band monitoring of a given spotbeam, the
following data is recorded by the system for every call:
• Date and time of the call
• A 4 or 5 digit subset of the IMSI of the MES
• The GPS position of the MES
• The telephone number dialled by the MES (in Mobile Originated calls only)
• The TMSI of the MES
• The Ciphering Key Sequence Number
• The RAND
• The SRES
• The Encryption Algorithm implement on the call
* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

3

• The system also produces a computer file of the call that was recorded; this file is
available for offline analysis

Figure 3 – Information Available from an Intercepted Call before Encryption is Started
Where the system is only able to perform C-band monitoring of a given spotbeam, the
following data is recorded by the system for every call:
• Date and time of call
• A 4 or 5 digit subset of the IMSI of the MES
• The GPS position of the MES
• The telephone number dialled by the MES (in Mobile Originated calls only)
For C-Band only monitoring, the call cannot be intercepted, and therefore no recording file is
generated.

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

4

Figure 4 – Information Received from C-Band Monitoring

2.2- Decryption
TRL has now identified, tested and verified the functionality of a Thuraya Cryptanalysis and
Decryption device provided by a third-party company. This company is a proven supplier of
passive GSM monitoring systems including A5/2 cryptanalysis and decryption. The Thuraya
cryptanalysis and decryption unit is their complete solution, developed as a result of
determining the Thuraya encryption algorithm and developing their existing GSM cryptanalysis
product to process the Thuraya traffic.
This solution when connected to the Strategic Thuraya Monitoring System provides the
capability for the play-back of audio voice calls and the display of the SMS, fax and data
sessions.
2.2.1- Additional Functionality Available with a Cryptanalysis Solution
With the Thuraya cryptanalysis and decryption solution integrated with the strategic TMS, the
following additional information becomes available from calls intercepted in a full duplex C and
L-band monitoring system:
• Human Comprehensible Call Content. This would include live and archived stereo
audio playback of voice calls, and presentation of decoded SMS and fax. Additionally, a
range of commercial data protocols would also be supported for decoding data
transmitted over the Thuraya network.
• MES IMEI. The IMEI of the MES would be recorded, significantly enhancing the ability to
identify and track particular Thuraya terminals.
• Calling Line Identity Presentation (CLIP). The telephone number of call originator would
be available on some calls. In particular, the telephone number of the land-line in fixed
originated calls, and the telephone number of both parties in a Thuraya terminal to
terminal call would become available.
Cryptographic and Cryptanalysis technology is subject to export control by the governments of
many Western countries, including the United Kingdom. Upon development of a GMR-1
cryptanalysis solution, any European or North American developer would be obliged to apply to
their respective governments for permission to export the solution.

2.3- A Typical Strategic Thuraya Monitoring System
A typical TMS system would include:
• Full duplex interception of Thuraya calls for terminals located within the same spotbeam
as the monitoring system, and up to 6 spotbeams immediately adjacent to that central
spotbeam
• Antenna system, including a 9.3m C-Band antenna and demodulator subsystem for
monitoring of up to 1088 simultaneous calls in the area covered by the main installation –
including GPS co-ordinates of mobile terminals
• Analysis subsystem, complete with 6 server computers and 8 analysis workstations
complete with TMS analysis software
• Full Operator, Administrator and Maintainer training programs, held both at TRL and at the
customer’s site if required
• Comprehensive operation and support documentation
• Full warranty for the first year
• The option of a Remote L-Band Unit, to extend the interception coverage of the
monitoring system, to another group of up to 7 spotbeams anywhere within the Thuraya
coverage
• C-band Only monitoring of Terminal activity in any Thuraya spotbeam on the satellite. Up
to 35 spotbeams can be monitored in the default configuratio This monitoring provides
* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

5

the GPS position and the dialed telephone numbers for all Thuraya phones operating in
the spotbeams of interest
The proposed strategic Thuraya Monitoring System comprises 3 subsystems, each are
described below:
2.3.1- RF/IF Subsystem
The RF/IF subsystem receives the downlink signals from the Thuraya satellite that are intended
for the MES and the PGW. It includes the following components:
Outdoor Equipment
• 9.3m Diameter C-Band Earth Station Antenna
• Flat Plate L-Band Antenna
Low Noise Amplifiers are included with all antennas, as well as Inter-Facility Cabling between
the Antennas and the Customer Supplied Equipment Room. The 9.3m C-Band Antenna is fully
motorized.

Figure 5 – Typical C-Band Antenna








Satellite Tracking Antenna Controller
Satellite Beacon Tracking Receiver
4 C-Band Synthesized Tuneable Downconverters
1 L-Band Synthesis Tuneable Downconverter
RF/IF Signal Distribution
10 MHz GPS Corrected Station Frequency Reference
Uninterruptible Power Supply

The above indoor equipment is supplied installed in a 19” rack cabinet.
2.3.2- Demodulator Subsystem
The demodulator subsystem receives the satellite signals from the RF/IF subsystem at IF, and
demodulates them. It includes the following:
• Demodulator Cards. A sufficient number of demodulator cards will be supplied in order
to perform dual C- and L-band monitoring and call intercept of all traffic on up to seven
spotbeams surrounding the monitoring station, as well as C-band only monitoring for at
* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

6

least 10 other spotbeams. If the optional Remote L-Band Monitoring System is also
ordered, then the strategic system will be fitted with additional demodulator cards to
provide C-band monitoring and call intercept for the spotbeams monitored by the
remote system. The demodulator cards are fitted in to card racks, each housing 12
cards.
• Ethernet Switch
• Uninterruptible Power Supply
All components of the Demodulator Subsystem are supplied installed in a 19” rack cabinet.

Figure 6 – Typical TMS Equipment
2.3.3- Analysis Subsystem
The analysis subsystem configures the demodulator subsystem according to the User’s
operational requirements. It receives the satellite signals from the Demodulator subsystem via
an Ethernet network, and stores them in the server computers. The analysis software performs
decoding and de-multiplexing of the received signals and interprets them providing the User
with information about the traffic on the Thuraya network as described in Section X2.1X. The
software includes a geographical mapping interface based on the ESRI standard ArcGIS
software, and displays the positions of the MESs making calls on the Thuraya network, as well
as information related to the available spotbeams on a map.

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

7

Figure 7 – Sample Map Generated from C-band Monitoring Data
The Analysis Subsystem includes the following components:
19” Rack Mounted
• Server Computers
• Keyboard, Video, Mouse (KVM) Drawer
• KVM Switch
• Ethernet Switch
• Uninterruptible Power Supply
Free Standing
• Workstation Computers with 19” LCD TFT Flat Screen Monitors
• Uninterruptible Power Supply Units
It is assumed that suitable buildings, civil works and electrical power is to be provided by the
customer, and therefore is not included within the scope of this proposal.
Training is provided in the administration, operation and maintenance of the system both at TRL
facilities, and at the customer site upon completion of the system installation.
The strategic TMS is supplied with a full spares pack to reduce potential system downtime in
the event of a component failure.
The TMS has a modular design allowing all aspects to be scaled to meet customer
requirements.
* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

8

Remote L-Band Thuraya Monitoring Expansion
A Remote L-Band Thuraya Monitoring System (TMS) expands upon the amount of spotbeams
that a strategic TMS can provide full duplex call intercept for.

Figure 8 – Map of the Thuraya Spotbeam Structure
The strategic TMS can provide full duplex monitoring for a cluster of up to seven spotbeams
centered on its geographical location. The addition of a Remote L-Band TMS can extend this
coverage to another cluster of up to seven spotbeams anywhere within the coverage area of
the Thuraya satellite.
The Remote L-band TMS should be connected to the strategic TMS via an ‘always on’
connection, such as a Leased Line, WAN, or satellite link (e.g. VSAT). In this way the Remote Lband TMS acts in a similar way to the L-band part of the strategic TMS. Information is passed
across the remote link to ensure that the interceptions of two monitoring systems are
synchronized. TRL recommend the use of a VSAT link for remote areas, and can offer this as
part of a ‘turnkey’ solution if required.
The Remote L-band TMS comprises the following components:
Outdoor Equipment
• Flat Plate L-Band Antenna and Associated RF Cables
Rack Mount Indoor Equipment
• L-band Downconverter
• 12 Demodulator Cards are supplied as standard, in most cases this will enable L-band
monitoring and call intercept of all traffic on the seven spotbeams surrounding the remote
monitoring station. The demodulator cards are fitted into card racks, each housing 12
cards
• Server computer
• Uninterruptible Power Supply
• Ethernet Switch
* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

9

• A full spares pack is also included

4- The Semi-Strategic Thuraya Monitoring System
The Semi-Strategic TMS operates in the same way as the Strategic Thuraya monitoring system,
except that it is designed to work with a trailer-mounted 4.6m C-band antenna. Because of the
reduced size of the antenna, it is not capable of intercepting the call content, instead it is used
to monitor Thuraya activity in any spotbeam, providing the operator with the GPS positions of
Thuraya terminals active within the spotbeams of interest, and the telephone numbers being
dialed by these terminals.
The Semi-Strategic TMS comprises the following components:
• 4.6m Trailer Mounted C-Band Antenna
• Satellite Tracking Antenna Controller
• Satellite Beacon Tracking Receiver
• 4 C-Band Synthesised Tuneable Downconverters
• RF/IF Signal Distribution
• 10 MHz GPS Corrected Station Frequency Reference
• Demodulator Cards. A sufficient number of demodulator cards will be supplied in order to
perform C-band only monitoring for up to 12 spotbeams
• Ethernet Switch
• Server Computer loaded with TMS Server software
• Keyboard, Video, Mouse (KVM) Drawer
• Uninterruptible Power Supply
• Laptop computer loaded with TMS Client software
A full spares pack is also included.

Figure 9 – Typical Semi-Strategic TMS Antenna

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

10

5- The Tactical Thuraya Monitoring System
The tactical Thuraya Monitoring System operates in the same way as the strategic system,
except that it only receives L-Band signals. In order for it to be able to intercept both side of a
duplex call, as well as receiving the L-Band satellite downlink to the Thuraya terminal, it also
receives the L-band uplink from the target terminal via radio line-of-sight.
The tactical system will intercept all of the same information available from a strategic system,
but only for terminals with its radio line-of-sight. The range of the system can vary from up to
10 km in clear terrain and from an advantageous monitoring point, to as little as a few hundred
meters in dense urban areas or inside buildings.
The tactical TMS comprises the following components:
• Flat Plate L-Band Satellite Downlink Antenna
• Flat Plate L-Band Target Downlink Antenna
• RF Cables
• Tactical TMS Chassis fitted with 6 Demodulator Cards, Ethernet Switch Card, IF/FRU
Card, and a Dual Downconverter card
• Laptop Computer
A full spares pack is also included.

Figure 10 – Tactical Thuraya Monitoring System

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

11

Thuraya Monitoring System Identities and information
captured
In the following scenarios, the Thuraya terminal marked “1” is always assumed to be in the
coverage area of the Thuraya Monitoring System (L&C Band):

Thuraya Makes Call to Landline
Thuraya MES1 information captured:
Landline Phone Information captured:
Date and time call made
Number
GPS Location
TMSI
IMEI
Call content captured: Duplex - Voice, SMS, Data*

Thuraya Makes Call to GSM Phone
Thuraya MES1 information captured:
GSM Phone Information captured:
Date and time call made GPS Location Number
TMSI IMEI
Call content captured: Duplex - Voice, SMS, Data*

Thuraya 1 Makes Call to Thuraya 2 in Area covered by TMS (L&C Band)
Thuraya MES1 information captured:
Thuraya MES2 Information captured:
Date and time call made
Date and time call received
GPS Location
GPS Location Number (ISDN)
Number (ISDN) – if not blocked
TMSI
TMSI
IMEI
IMEI
Call content captured: Duplex - Voice, SMS, Data*
* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

12

Thuraya 1 Makes Call to Thuraya 2 in Area not covered by TMS
Thuraya MES 1 information captured:
Thuraya MES 2 Information captured:
Date and time call made
Date And Time (if C Band coverage)
GPS Location
GPS Location (if C Band coverage)
TMSI
But it is not possible to ‘pair’ this event with the
IMEI
call made from MES1
Call content captured: Duplex - Voice, SMS, Data*

GSM Phone Makes Call to Thuraya
GSM Phone information captured:
Number (if not blocked)

Thuraya MES1 Information captured:
Date and time call received
GPS Location
TMSI
IMEI
Call content captured: Duplex - Voice, SMS, Data*

Landline Phone Makes Call to Thuraya
Landline Phone information captured:
Number (if not blocked)

Thuraya MES1 Information captured:
Date and time call received
GPS Location
TMSI
IMEI
Call content captured: Duplex - Voice, SMS, Data*

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

13

Thuraya Switches on
Thuraya MES1 Information captured:
Date and time call received
GPS Location
TMSI
IMEI

Thuraya Switches Off
Thuraya MES1 Information captured:
Date and time
GPS Location
TMSI
IMEI

Recoverable File Types
Typical file types which will be recovered and viewable from e-mail attachments or file transfers
(FTP) are as follows:Text files
Text, Rich text, Postscript, PDF
Web Pages
Text, HTML
Sound Files
Basic audio, x-aiff, wav
Pictures
Image files, gif, jpeg, pjppeg, tiff, x-png, x-bitmap bmp, x-jg,
x-emf, x-wmf
Video clips
Avi, mpeg
Programs/applications
Base64, x-msdownload, octet-stream
Compressed files
x-compressed, x-zip-compressed, x-gzip-compressed
Application files, for Example
Microsoft Word documents
Microsoft Excel spreadsheets
Microsoft PowerPoint presentations
Word perfect documents
Lotus Notes documents

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

14

Protocols Supported
Underlying Protocols
The following Data Layer protocols are supported:
• SLIP
• PPP
• Synchronous
• PPP (Bit Stuffed Flag Frames)
• X Modem, Y MODEM

TCP/IP Protocols





HTTP (WWW)
FTP (File Transfer)
POP3 (e-mail)
SMTP (e-mail)

Modem Protocols (File Transfer)







XMODEM,
XMODEM-1K
XMODEM-CRC
YMODEM
YMODEM-1K
YMODEM-CRC

1. Screen shot showing call locations against physical map

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

15

2. Mobiles displayed on standard mapping software supplied with TMS

3. List View

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

16

4. Split screen display showing new list view and associate map view

5. Spotbeam map display – for system administration purpose

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

17

6. Analysis of calls graph - user definable

7. Event density map – showing areas of activity rather than individual calls.

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

18

8. Geo-location map screen – to set up geo-fence area to filter calls from a particular site of
Interest

9. SMS View

10. Audio Player

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

19

11. Fax View

12. Data View (POP3 example)

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

20

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

21

* See “Recoverable File Types” below
CONFIDENTIAL

22

Document Path: ["thuraya-monitoring-system.pdf"]

e-Highlighter

Click to send permalink to address bar, or right-click to copy permalink.

Un-highlight all Un-highlight selectionu Highlight selectionh