Name: RFeye, RFeye Secure, RFeye Node, RFeye Array

Text: CRFS

rty systems

Introduction
Wide area multi-mission monitoring and geolocation systems for
spectru m-critical sites.
RFeye Arrays provide cost-effective high performance real-time

maps, satellite images and 2D and 3D GIS datasets, to give

signals monitoring, analysis and geolocation for spectrum-

a unique positional display showing source geolocation

critical areas. Sites include government ranges, military training

probabilities, irrespective of signal power, bandwidth or

and proving grounds, army and naval bases, airports, sensitive

frequency.

borders and perimeters.Arrays are available in a range of
sizes and antenna configurations for fixed or vehicle-based

Modular and flexible deployments

deployment with frequency range options from 20MHz to

Each RFeye Arrays is fully self-containedwithin a robust IP65

18GHz.Twin receiver channels provide simultaneous monitoring

rated radome designed for hostile conditions. Close coupling of

and geolocation capabilities.

the RFeye Node and antenna modules reduces cable runs and
cable losses and significantly improves performance at higher

Class-leading signal interception

frequencies.Various directional antenna options are available

The RFeye Array is a fully integrated multi-mission system for

from 100 MHz to 18 GHz and an RFeye frequency extender

continuous 2417 spectrum monitoring and surveillance and for

module is available for AOA on VHF transmissions down to 20

detecting and locating unauthorized, suspicious or interfering

MHz. Arrays can be networked over large distances as part of a

transmitters. It is designed to intercept signals, however

wider monitoring andTDOA network with other RFeye Nodes.

transient, perform signals analysis and classification and quickly
and reliably geolocate target transmitters, all in real time or
recorded for future analyses.
The RFeye Array uses a unique multi-layer approach that is
more sophisticated and versatile than traditional direction
finding. High performance spiral directional antenna modules
are optimized for different frequency bands and arranged in
multiple orientations.The Array is sensitive to the majority of
incoming signal polarizations including all linear polarizations,
allowing reliable detection of signals including those invisible to
most DF systems that use only vertically polarized antennas.

-

Augmented geolocation techniques beyond direction finding
The RFeye receiver commutates at very high speed around the
antennas to make near-simultaneous measurements in multiple
directions. It measures correlations and calculates actual
positional probabilities using "augmentednTime Difference of
Arrival (TDOA) andlor Power on Arrival (POA) techniques.
In addition, it gives a bearing (Angle of Arrival) based on
received power at each antenna. Measurements from these
different techniques can be overlaid onto a wide variety of

RFeye Array configurations
RFeye Array 200

RFeye Array 300

Single channel system configuration example: AOA 300 MHz -

Dual channel system configuration example: AOA 20 MHz - 6 GHz,

4 GHz,TDOA Ibackground monitoring capability 10 MHz - 6 GHz,

TDOAI background monitoring 10 MHz - 18 GHz (with externally

shown with internal omnidirectional antenna fitted.

mounted omnidirectional antennals). Base system plusVHF
frequency extender.

300 MHz - 4 GHz
Monitoring and TDOAIPOA

10 MHz - 6 GHz

Number of channels

I Mechanical & environmental

Nechanical & environmental

Weight

---

20 - 300 MHz (VHF]extender optlon

Uumber of channels

Env~mnmentalprotection

10MHr-6GHz

.
p
-

20 - 300 MHziVHFiextender optlon

Storage
temperme

Monitoring and TDOAIPOA
6 - 18 GHr ISHF)extender option

6 - 18 GHz (SHF] extender option
.
p
.

Operatingtemperature

300 MHz - 6 GHr

I -28 to +50"C(-18 to 122°F)

j

41D+wci4tolm

RFeye Node & electronics / B 7
System Iffi5

Operatingtemperature

mtemperature

I -28to+50"C[-18to12Pfl

1

Enwmnmental pmtectlon

Weight

4n+~~C~4rnliBT~
RFeye Node & elebonlcs IP67
S W m IP65

I

KJkg/I76lbs

RFeye Array 700

RFeye Array 500

Dual channel system configuration example: AOA 100 MHz - 18

Dual channel system configuration example: AOA 20 MHz - 18 GHz,

GHz,TDOAI background monitoring 100 MHz - 18 GHz (to 10

TDOAI background monitoring 100 MHz - 18 GHz (to 10 MHz with

MHz with externally mounted omnidirectional antenna). Base

externally mounted omnidirectional antenna). "SKeyeView"45'

system plus SHF frequency extender.

and vertically aligned directional antennas. Base system plusVHF
frequency extender.

AOA
Mon~toringand TOOA/POA

1

6 - 18 GHz (SHF) exrender opticn
20 - 300 MHz (VHF)extender ophm

1WMHz-6GHz

AOA

10MHz-6GHz

Monrtoring and TDONPOA

Yes

I

.-

- .. -.
-

I 1OMHz-18GHz

6 - 18 GHz ISHFI extender opt~on

--

.

20 - 300 MHz(VHF)extender ophon

Yes

Number of channels

Mechanical & environmental

100MHz- 18GHz

I

NIA

1

.-

--

-

-.

Yes

Number of channels

I

Mechanical & environmental

I

Guide to direction finding and geolocation
CRFS employs a unique multi-layer approach for high probability
detection and geolocation of signals and transmitters of all types.

There are a number of well-established techniques for locating

Time Difference of Amval

the source of a given signal.These include Angle of Arrival

TDOA is a well-proven technique that uses synchronous time

(AOA),Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)and Power on Arrival

domain captures to determine the relative time of arrival of a

(POA).Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages,

signal at different receiver locations.The technique is optimal

with varying degrees of accuracy for successfully locating

for geolocation over wide areas. Two monitoring receiver

different signal types. CRFS's approach is to make simultaneous

points will provide geolocation probability in two dimensions

RFeye measurements using any two or all three of these

(i.e. approximately along a hyperbolic curve), whereas three

geolocation techniques, as appropriate, overlaid onto a terrain

or more monitoring receiver points will provide geolocation

map.This approach maximizes the probability of accurately

probability to a bounded area or point. TDOA works best for

locating a given transmitter, whatever the signal type.

wider modulation bandwidths with better signal correlation

Angle of Arrival

A significant advantage ofTDOA is that the processing gain

properties and therefore localization to a more narrow area.
AOA direction finding provides a bearing to received signals

of correlations allows successful geolocation of signals which

by rapidly switching between directional antenna elements in

are close to or even below the receiver noise floor.Timing

an antenna array. AOA is effective with any RF transmission

synchronization is required between the receivers forTDOA.

type as it responds directly to received RF power. Advantages

For wide area deployments, this is provided most practically by

from AOA include the excellent detection range resulting from

the RFeye on-board GPS receiver. Using RFeye Arrays,TDOA

directional antenna gain, and the ability to resolve multipath

geolocation results are combined with AOA results to provide

components to determine quality of signal bearings.

unrivalled geolocation performance.
Power on Amval

AOA: Three receiver points ensures
geolocation to small area, even when
target is collinear with two receivers

POA is a simple geolocation technique that uses synchronous
frequency domain captures to determine and compare the
instantaneous relative power of a signal at different receiver
locations. Given the rapid fall-off in received signal power
over distance from a transmitter, the POA technique is
optimal for relatively short-range geolocation such as inbuilding monitoring, where the amplitude comparison yields

As the technique is measuring signal power, ability to obtain

sufficient differences. POA requires three or more monitoring

AOA results is limited only by the noise floor of the receiver.

receiver points to provide geolocation probability to a

RFeye Arrays respond to most signal polarizations including

point. Increasing the density of receiver points significantly

all linear polarizations, overcoming the horizontal linear

improves the quality of the geolocation. POA is effective with

polarization blindness suffered by alternative direction finding

any RF transmission type, from unmodulated carrier wave

systems. RFeye Arrays use single or multiple receiver channels

signals to narrow band or short burst pulsed transmissions,

split between tiered and banded antenna arrays to multiply

since the technique relies only on received RF power. POA

the benefits from RFeye sweep speed and antenna switching

requires timing synchronization between receivers. Although

speed for increased probability of signal intercept. AOA

GPS synchronization is viable, it is typically not practical or

bearings from two or more Arrays are combined to provide

secure for in-building applications. High performance wired

geolocation to a single point. When augmented withTDOA

timing synchronization systems such as RFeye SyncLincN are

geolocation results, AOA provides assured geolocation over

therefore used in-building.

the greatest possible range of target signal types.

RFeye Site software
State-of-the-art desktop application for managing complex spectrtum
operations using RFeye Arrays and Nodes.

RFeye Site software provide easy multi-mission control

all or any of the Nodes over wired or cellular networks,

including 2417 continuous spectrum monitoring,

with relative priority levels assignable to user levels and

programmable masks and alarms, signal analysis and

missions.

optional signal classification capability, and full geolocation
mapping capability.

Plug-in modules are available for RFeye Site to enable and
controlTDOA, AOA and POA geolocation.These support

Each and every RFeye Array or Node in the network can be

multiple simultaneous geolocations on multiple frequencies.

assigned tasks from a large configurable menu, ranging

Results are plotted on 2 0 or 3D maps and are displayed

from requests for basic spectrum sweeps and occupancy

as probability heat map overlays. Multiple results can be

measurements, to the detection and alerting of spectrum

overlaid onto the map for ease of visualization and analysis.

events, to advanced signal classification and real-time

The mapping tools include full zoom facility and ability to

geolocation of sources of interest. Multiple users can

display many simultaneous maps. SRTM data overlay is

simultaneously make multiple requests of or interact with

available to aid geolocation analysis.

ancm Inutnndnrcmetnm

nncrrinrinn

Single channel system. ADA 300 MHz - 4 GHz. TDOA / background monitoring capabmltty 10
MHz - 6 GHz(omnmdcrect~onalantenna not mcluded) Compact fixed or mobile system. 1 lrn
radome or mofbox

RFeye Array 200

Array 300-SHF

RFeye Array 500

l

beckground monitoring high end'frequency ranqe of RFeve Array 300 to cover SHF to 18 GHz

Base system Dual channel system. AOA 100 MHz - 6 GHz, TDOA / background monitorcng
100 MHz - 6 GHz Includesomnidirectional antenna rated 100 MHz - 18 GHz. TDOA /
background monitorcng can be extended to 10 MHz with additional antenna fitted externally
(not mcluded) 1 5m radome, fixed system

1

I

SYS-OFA0005

SYS-DFAOOOlS

SYS-DFA0002

VHF LGw m e n c y g x t e d r for Weye h y 333,t@M Wz. WS
A ~ low
A end
frequency range of RFeye Array 500 to cover VHF to 20 MHz Ordered as addition to RFeye
Array 500 Note RFeye Array systems with integrated low frequency extender module
regUtrtaexternal omqidirectimi a n t m d s ) for TO@& / basksmwfd monrtoring

antenna ratA 100 MHz ,113 W TDOA /

RFeye Array 708

For more information
find out more or d ~ s c
nquiries@crfs.com or call +44 (0) 1223 815 615.You can also find useful
resources on our website at www.crfs.com-

A

SYS-DFAOOM-V

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