Name: Virage

Text: Virage Security & Surveillance
White Paper

[Yj

VIRAGE"

Security &. Surveillance

Contents
Introduction

01

Digital/Network Video Recording

02

Electronic Point of Sale Monitoring

05

Container Surveillance and Management

08

Automatic Number/License Plate Recognition

10

Intelligent Scene Analysis System

14

Biometrics and Audio Recognition

20

Command and Control

21

Security

26

Conclusion

27

Introduction
Security and surveillance operations have become an
increasingly important consideration at a corporate, national
and global level as organizations strive to protect individuals
and mitigate against risks posed to public and corporate
assets. While surveillance operations and observation
form an integral part of any security strategy, the ability
to understand, analyze and interpret the significance of
information gathered as part of surveillance operations is
a fundamenta l requ irement for all security environments
today. Increasing volumes and types of data, including video
footage, camera stills, vehicle registration plates, traffic
records, police databases, immigration records, telephone
conversations and transaction reports form part of security
operations and point to the need to adopt comprehensive
strategies which encompass all security data.
Virage Security and Surveillance supports every stage of security and surveillance operations, providing an extensive
range of advanced recognition and recording systems as wel l as capabilities for instant and post event retrieva l
and analytics. A flexible and entirely modular architecture allows customers to select products according to their
specific requirements to create tailor-made, highly sophisticated security systems. All products may be used either
as individual components on a standalone basis or multi-linked to each other to create a centralized control and
management center.
Combining world leading technologies from security, infrastructure and video specialists, Virage offers one of the most
sophisticated security and surveillance solutions in the world. Pioneering advanced recognition technologies originally
developed for the security services lie at the heart of Virage Security and Surveillance and provide a strong foundation
for a sophisticated product range which includes: Digital/Network Video Recording (DVR/NVR), Automatic Number
Plate Recognition (ANPR), Intelligent Scene Ana lysis System (iSAS), Electronic Point of Sale Monitoring (EPOS).
Container Surveillance and Management System (CSM). fi ngerprint and audio analysis and 3-D face recognition.
As part of the Autonomy Group, Virage has been fully integrated w ith Autonomy's award winning technology
- offering enhanced analytical capabilities. Autonomy's unique technology allows organizations to monitor vast
quantities of information from disparate sources, understand all data gathered at a conceptual level and place each
piece of information in context with other known intelligence. By automatically understanding the inherent meaning
and potential significance of any piece of information, Autonomy's technology brings fresh, intelligent insight and
immediate analytical capabilities to all security environments.

1

Digital/Network Video Recording
As an integral part of crime control policy, social control theory and community consciousness, CCTV is a defining
feature of today’s society and a powerful tool used by corporations and governments worldwide. High quality digital
and network recording facilities are a critical component of any successful CCTV strategy to ensure that potentially
vital images are captured and retained safely for further analysis. While CCTV footage is popularly believed to play an
important role in crime detection and prevention, in order for a system to be truly effective, robust recording equipment
is a priority.
Moreover, simply capturing and storing images indiscriminately does not, in itself, constitute an effective solution, DVR/
NVR technologies which merely capture and store footage fall desperately short of the levels of complexity required
by most security and surveillance environments. Virage Security and Surveillance DVR/NVR offers organizations state
of the art recording technology together with advanced retrieval functionality for rapid image recall to ensure that
key images can be located quickly and easily for further analysis. Bringing fresh intelligence to digital and network
recording and transmission, Virage DVR/NVR is sophisticated enough to alter its function in response to changing
circumstances and distinguish between different types of behavior and alarm. With storage capacity expanding into
petabytes, the ability to record at full resolution across multiple channels and prioritize its activity dynamically, Virage
Security and Surveillance offers a new breed of DVR/NVR.

Dynamic Resource Prioritization
Surveillance staff can link straight to live images from multiple cameras and locations linked to a DVR/NVR unit. All
images captured and retained by Virage DVR/NVR resolve fine detail and allow users accessing images, either on the
fly or in retrospect, to analyze detailed, high resolution images.
Unlike other systems which require extensive configuration by an administrator or are limited to one simple recording
option, Virage Security and Surveillance DVR/NVR is entirely flexible and can perform multiple recording functions
simultaneously and reconfigure itself dynamically based on an alarm. Increasing the frame recording rate, switching
between cameras or switching between storage buffer types, ensures resources are prioritized dynamically according to
demand.
In order to ensure a commitment to recording and storing high quality images likely to be required for post event
analysis, cameras may be configured to change their frame recording rate according to certain pre-defined conditions.
For example, when integrated with Virage Security and Surveillance Intelligent Scene Analysis System (iSAS), if certain
activity is detected within the field of view, such as someone leaving a bag unattended, DVR/NVR can be programmed
to react to this alarm and automatically increase the recording frame rate prior to, during and after the event. Virage
DVR/NVR can be configured to respond to multiple categories of alarm including Video Motion Detect (VMD), digital,
Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) and Intelligent Scene Analysis System (iSAS):

2



VMD: DVR/NVR can be configured to react once motion is detected within a specified scene or
particular area within a scene.



Digital: these can be generated by physical movements including the opening of a barrier or door;
when such movement is detected, DVR/NVR can be configured to respond automatically.



ANPR/iSAS: when integrated with Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR or iSAS systems, pre-defined
alarms are automatically relayed to the DVR/NVR unit to ensure appropriate images are captured and
stored upon recognition of certain vehicles or behaviors.

Figure 1- Virag< monitors multiple lrxation>simu//anrously

Audio
A key requirement for many remote surveillance systems is bi-directional audio transmission which enables
surveillance staff to communicate with persons remotely. Virage Security and Surveillance DVR/NVR supports bid irectional audio transmission, and where requ ired, units can be equipped with audio recording facilities which
will synchronize video from an associated camera to achieve full "lip-sync". Typically used when identifying and
challenging intruders, audio transmission and record ing capabilities offer enhanced facilities for remote surveillance
operations.

Storage Capacity and Principles
Virage Security and Surveillance DVR/NVR offers extensive storage capabilities and hard disk drive (HDD) capacity
which can be adapted to suit individ ual project requ irements. While storage costs have decreased significantly
in recent years, and Virage continues to lead the market in providing comprehensive storage faci lities, in most
circumstances, it is neither necessary nor desirable to store large quantities of irrelevant footage.
Virage DVR/NVR can be configured to prioritize storage of images accordingly. All images are stored to a HDD w hich
is integrated w ithin each DVR/NVR unit. The system uses HDD circular buffers working on a first-in first-out (FIFO)

3

principle to ensure that there is always storage capacity available for new images. Buffer size determines the maximum
length of storage period available, so by using multiple buffers of differing sizes, images can be stored for different
lengths of time. Virage can record and store all background images routinely for a specified time, e.g. for 7 days or
30 days, dependent on buffer size and where required, store footage from immediately before, during and/or after an
event on a separate buffer so that it is available for retrospective analysis.
Storage levels are monitored automatically to make sure that all necessary images are captured and archived correctly.
Should storage be consumed faster than expected, either as a result of a higher than expected number of events or
due to a miscalculation, the user will be automatically alerted to this in order to ensure that images may be continually
recorded and stored according to requirements. In order to increase the amount of images stored within any given
DVR system, the compression level of images may be modified at any time, thereby making the system extremely
flexible to changing requirements.

Extensive Archive Options
In general, the size of storage buffers will determine the length of time for which any images are retained, but where
specific images need to be retained for an extended period of time, DVR/NVR provides multiple levels of archiving:

• Snap shot archiving: involves saving single images as a standard bitmap to the archive directory or CD
- saved images may then be printed or emailed where it is necessary for other parties to gain access
to the images.
• Streaming: enables users to review images from multiple cameras individually e.g. if an incident was
suspected to have taken place between 3.00am and 3.15am an operator would be able to retrieve,
store and review all the images from that time period individually using streaming.
• Major event download: used when large quantities of images must be retained for further analysis using a local area network (LAN) connection and software provided by Virage, images can be copied
bit for bit onto another network computer with no impact on the current performance of the DVR/NVR
system.

Advanced Retrieval Functions
An extensive range of retrieval features ensure that users can locate and retrieve relevant images quickly and easily.
As well as searching and retrieving images by time and camera, where users wish to search by alarm category such
as by iSAS alarm, users may specify multiple parameters in order to retrieve specific events within a given alarm – for
example, find images of dangerous vehicle maneuvers within a specific scene.

4

Electronic Point of Sale Monitoring
With internal employee theft on the increase and current systems falling short of the mark, businesses need to
implement new measures to detect and prevent fraudulent activity. Surveillance systems need to be able to capture
the right information at the right time and, where necessary, analyze it intelligently to uncover correlations which
might otherwise not be apparent. Systems currently in place often rely heavily on human surveillance (see page
15) however, this type of surveillance alone is highly ineffective. Businesses need solutions which complement their
efforts, maximize the efficiency and efficacy of POS surveillance and reduce losses.
Virage Security and Surveillance EPOS delivers DVR/NVR of the highest quality. Combined with synchronous capture
of cash register transactional data, Virage EPOS offers retailers the most versatile and efficient surveillance and retail
management system available. Full data capture, including time synchronized image and transactional data together
with centralized reporting and management enable retailers to monitor multiple locations simultaneously and correlate
results from multiple cash registers. Multiple site EPOS data and daily reports can be sent to and managed from a
central location and remote access enables off site reports and investigations. These features make Virage Security and
Surveillance EPOS the most comprehensive solution of its kind available on the market today.

Theft and Fraud: The Challenge
According to recent national statistics, theft costs retailers around 5% of their annual turnover with 20% of theft
attributable to credit card fraud and employees responsible for over 50% of shrinkage. Research has shown that
whilst 19% of firms with fewer than 15 employees have experienced staff fraud, this figure more than doubles to 48%
for businesses with over 36 staff. In addition, the U.S. Department of Justice estimates that insider theft is growing at
15% annually. More alarmingly, research has shown that 75% of internal theft is undetected.
Theft and fraud, clearly extremely detrimental and a huge issue to companies of all sizes worldwide, show no signs of
easing. Detecting fraudulent activity is a key concern, particularly amongst petrol stations, confectioners, tobacconists,
newsagents, convenience stores, supermarkets, pubs and clubs and fast food outlets. More than ever companies are
seeking new measures to combat this illegal activity, however, many businesses still only rely on manual surveillance
techniques alone. Research carried out indicates that businesses lost as much as $60 billion in 2005 as a result of
not using anti-fraud software. That aside, even where software solutions have been implemented, in many cases these
solutions fall short of requirements and subsequently fail to adequately combat illegal activity.

Live Point of Sale Monitoring
Virage Security and Surveillance offer solutions to suit all retail applications and budgets. Virage Electronic Point Of
Sale (EPOS) enables effective stock management by reducing stock losses and increasing profits. Virage offers an
unrivalled combination of high quality DVR/NVR and EPOS monitoring in one package. Designed to detect and deter
fraudulent activity at the Point of Sale (POS), EPOS synchronization associates POS transactional data with DVR/NVR

5

CCTV footage. In this way, Vi rage EPOS acts as an early warning system by alerting surveillance staff to suspicious or
illegal activity at the cash register, as it happens. Rules-based keyword matches, based on given req uirements, allow
alerts to be triggered at the POS when transactions such as voids, refunds, discounts and cashback are activated.

Figure 2 - Viragt EPOS monilors activity al !ht Poi11/ efSalt.

Intelligent Post Event Analysis
In addition to providing live EPOS monitoring, Virage enables playback of prerecorded images. DVR/NVR data can be
analyzed post event by reviewing data stored on the HDD. All data is stored in a database at the time it is created
and can be quickly and easily located as and when required for future analysis. Retrospective investigation options
support a ful l range of retrieval options e.g. transaction data, video images or multiple parameters. Transaction data is
searchable by:



Date




Time
Product




Price
Till Number



Other search parameters (including multiple parameters) based on pre-defined rules
e.g. void plus cashback

An intuitive, user-friendly interface w ith drag and drop features makes the system easy to use and means minimal
training is required. Users can search and view records based on transaction data and where CCTV images are
available, these wil l be displayed along with the transaction data. Similarly, users can search for an image or video
segment and then request the transactional data for this image/segment. Transaction data and video footage are
always available but users are able to choose w hether that information is displayed along with what they've searched
for. Under no circumstances is transactional data automatically burned onto the video imagery as this could render
the CCTV footage useless. In the event that users wish to display transactional data with the video footage, users can
choose to overlay transactional data on top of video footage. Where multiple cameras are in use, users can search all
cameras simultaneously through a single interface, or simply narrow their search to results from a specified camera.

6

Advanced analytics, such as clustering (identifying related groups of data), enable the discovery of trends and
correlations across the entire data set, providing the ability to spot unusual activity spanning multiple cash registers
which may have otherwise gone undetected. Conceptual analytics which use unique pattern matching techniques
to detect underlying trends and anomalies in any given data set, enable retailers to gain greater insight into all
transactional data and corresponding video images (for further information on these features please see page 22).

Architecture, Configuration and Training
Virage Security and Surveillance EPOS is fully scalable and suitable for both small and large scale deployments. Virage
EPOS is integrated with the DVR/NVR to provide comprehensive recording and analysis functionality. Up to 16 cash
registers can be attached to each DVR/NVR unit and multiple DVR/NVR units can be seamlessly linked together to
increase system size w here necessary. Separate interfaces are available to allow connection with, for example: cash
registers (300 types), Automatic Teller Machines (ATM's), coin scales and sorters, car park ticket machines, weigh
bridges and toll booths. Virage are continually innovating and creating new interfaces to suit changing customer
requirements. In addition, data can be accessed both locally and remotely providing the basis for the most versatile,
flexible and remote surveillance and retai l management system available today.
Virage Security and Surveillance ensures that storage requirements are actively managed for optimum performance by
automatically overwriting all captured images after a specified time. Pre-event recording can be triggered to ensure that
images w hich precede a significant event can be appropriately captured and stored for later analysis. These storage
techniques ensure that all images surrounding potentially significant activity can be kept without the need for extensive
storage capacity. Predefined events can be configured within Virage EPOS to increase the recording frame rate on
key words or hard wired alarm inputs. Frame capture can be configured to automati cally increase where the systems
detects unusual or suspicious activity - this means important visual information is not lost at a critical moment. HDD
performance remains unaffected by both search and playback features. The storage capacity of the installed system
will determi ne how long images are kept. In addition, limits can be set on individual users to limit how fa r back they
are able to search through footage.

MM@M*i!Q

Figure 3 - EPOS retril!Ves transactional data which can al.so be viewed alongside imagery
from multiple camtras ifiksirtd.

7

Container Surveillance and Management
It has been estimated that there are up to 19 million containers currently in transition globally and that traffic is
increasing at a rate of about 10 percent annually. Given the ever increasing volumes of traffic, vehicle and container
identification and tracking has never been so important to the logistics industry. Not only do organizations need to
know where containers are and when they will be delivered but also other more detailed information such as what
condition the containers were in at various stages throughout their journey and who and where they were accessed
along the way. Virage CSM enables comprehensive vehicle and container identification and tracking in logistics
environments; from seaports and inland container terminals to rail container terminals. Automation within Virage CSM
removes the need for costly additional manual input and makes the identification, tracking, control and management
of logistic processes highly efficient. A unique combination of core technologies and superior analytical capabilities
give Virage CSM the power to provide added intelligence which can be used to improve future operations and deliver
significant benefits to businesses.

Advanced Vehicle and Container Recognition Systems
Virage Security and Surveillance Container Surveillance and Management (CSM) is a world leading vehicle and
container recognition system. This highly sophisticated tool enables businesses to keep track of the ever-increasing
volumes of cargo that flow through transport hubs such as seaports, inland container terminals and rail container
terminals. Virage CSM automatically captures vehicle and container information, including:








Vehicle number/license plate
Container(s) ISO numbers
Container type
Container damage recording
Site and gate location
Date/time

Not only does Virage Security and Surveillance CSM enable businesses to keep an accurate record of exactly when
and where containers pass through certain points in the transport network; in addition, through high quality digital
video recording and management, Virage CSM keeps track of what condition containers are in at various stages of their
journey throughout the world. By capturing this cross section of data, Virage provides complex cross referencing for
24/7/365 operations. CSM can significantly increase traffic efficiency as the system works on moving vehicles as well
as those which are static. CSM works on standard 20,30,40,45 and 20 + 20 ft containers.

8

Core Technologies
Virage Security and Surveillance CSM employs world-class Optical Character Recognition (OCR) for container
and number/license plate recognition. Fully automated OCR in conj unction with high quality recording of digital
video images offers users the ability to centralize all of this data and cross-reference it with, for example, container
inventories in order to repurpose the information quickly and efficiently for further analysis and use. Core technology
means Virage CSM is able to offer advanced automated functionality such as automatic clustering, profiling,
alerting and hyperlinking in conjunction with web distribution of data and video. This provides Virage Security and
Surveillance with unique, superior analytical capabiliti es and added intelligence (see page 22 for further information
on functionality and integration).

Architecture
Due to the open architecture design of CSM, the system is able to communicate and interface with on-site
management systems, eliminating a w ide range of manual processes leading to significant return on investment.
Virage Security and Surveillance CSM is fully compatible with existing information systems and can be set up to work
as a web, intranet and/or other application. Virage's web access features mean customers can view data quickly and
easily over the web when they need. The system is fully scalable and easily managed using intuitive administration
panes. CSM can be integrated with Virage Command and Control as well as with other Virage applications such as
ANPR and iSAS for superior intelligence and analytical capabilities.

Figuff 4 - Virag.. CSM tracks container data $11Ch as numlwplate, cargo number and

ttren rontaintr co11dition.

9

Automatic Number/License Plate Recognition
Automating the processes of identifying and tracking vehicles has valuable applications for both commercial and law
enforcement purposes. The ability to identify vehicles in all conditions and trigger appropriate actions automatically
is a key requirement in many environments ranging from car park surveillance and monitoring forecourts to traffic
law enforcement and border controls. With the capability to integrate with multiple databases and automatically cross
reference and correlate identified license plates with other data, Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR offers the most
sophisticated technology for automatic vehicle identification and tracking. When integrated with Virage DVR/NVR,
ANPR provides a comprehensive, end to end solution which encompasses every aspect of vehicle recognition and
tracking together with advanced recording, retrieval and analytical capabilities.
Compatible with existing CCTV systems, Virage ANPR can recognize and record number/license plates including
international plates even at speeds exceeding 100 MPH, and where necessary, trigger an appropriate response.
Example applications include: identifying stolen vehicles, car park surveillance, traffic law enforcement and access
control such as monitoring drive throughs, filling stations, toll booths and border controls. With inbuilt digital and
network recording capabilities and the ability to integrate with multiple repositories such as police databases and traffic
records, Virage ANPR is suitable for all vehicle surveillance operations.

Advanced Automatic Vehicle Identification and Tracking
Full integration with multiple databases and the ability to correlate recorded number plates with other data, such as
stolen vehicle registers, traffic and law enforcement records, credit card transaction reports and customer records
place Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR capabilities way beyond traditional plate recognition systems. Virage’s
comprehensive approach, which automatically cross references each vehicle identified with any other data sources
available supports efforts to understand and interpret the potential significance of certain behaviors.
In addition to assisting in traffic law enforcement and vehicle identification, Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR
has numerous commercial applications. For example, renowned retailers use Virage ANPR to ensure their most
loyal customers receive outstanding levels of customer service. At the entrance to the car park, ANPR automatically
detects loyalty cardholders as they enter and automatically assigns them a convenient parking space. As well as
enabling retailers to offer special customers a more personalized service, Virage ANPR provides valuable insights into
customers' shopping habits such as how frequently they visited the store over any given time period. Virage Security
and Surveillance ANPR is also used to streamline logistics operations, for example, loading and unloading goods at
distribution centers. By automatically matching vehicle number/license plates with information held in local databases,
Virage ANPR triggers entry authorization and automatically directs vehicles to designated bays where relevant
documentation will be waiting so that unloading/loading can commence immediately.

10

Core Technologies
Neural Network (NN) based OCR techniques lie at the heart of Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR capabilities,
supporting advanced character recognition in all conditions. Unlike template matching used by other systems, which
is dependent on receiving high quality images in order to identify number plates successfully, Virage ANPR utilizes NN
based OCR techniques which provide much greater tolerance for matching poorly defined characters. Virage ANPR can
also be integrated w ith Virage Command and Control for further advanced functionality (see page 22).

High Performance in All Conditions
Automatic format checking places each plate reading in context by verifying the identified number plate against typical
templates in any given territory. By taking multiple readings of each plate and using sophisticated probability matching
techniques to analyze and calculate the likelihood that any given reading is correct, ANPR is able to recognize number
plates extremely accurately.

Figurt S • Multiple image grabs, automaticJonna/ Checking and sophisticated
probabilistic matching ttdmiques produce highly atamJ/tplali! rtading rtSUh

Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR can accurately identify number/license plates even in the most demanding
conditions, such as when visibility is low due to adverse weather or poor light conditions. When combined with
an infrared illuminator, Virage ANPR is even able to recognize number plates at night. In addition, ANPR is able to
capture and identify square, inverse, borderless and foreign plates entirely automatically. Where required, adjustments
to contrast, plate size, country number/license plate format, skew and rotation settings can be made by the operator
to fine tune the system in order to achieve optimum performance in specific conditions. The system can be configured
to trigger prerecording where required to ensure important images are captured and stored for later analysis (see page
22). In addition, Virage enables recording via digital triggering to achieve a 100% capture rate.

11

Database Integration and Action Assignment
Number/license plates may be added into the database, along w ith any associated metadata, such as registered
vehicle owner's name, home address and driver history by importing a text fi le into the database. Once vehicles are
entered into the databases, actions can be associated with each plate by assigning a code to each entry; this ensures
that once a vehicle is correctly identified, pre-defined instructions will be followed. Virage enables integration with
third party databases. Database records can be individ ually entered or imported as a one off, or periodically integrated
- this enables mass data transfer from the third party system to the Virage system. For example, where Virage Security
and Surveillance ANPR is used for access control, a code can be assigned to authorized cars to trigger a barrier to be
ra ised so that authorized vehicles can gain access. Where an unrecognized vehicle is detected, the system could be
configured to play a WAV file which would refuse the vehicle entry and trigger a live audio/video connection w hich
would be relayed to security staff instantaneously for verification. Where required, different codes and actions may be
assigned depending on what time or date any given vehicle is identified: for example, when employee vehicles are
detected approaching a staff ca r park, the system can be configured to raise the barrier if it is a weekday, but if it is
during the weekend, the system can be configured to allow access, but also record footage of the vehicle and notify
the driver's supervisor that they were onsite during the weekend.

....... .......

,..
.,,.
r ...............~

Iii""---.. . .

Figure 6 - Assigning alarm codes and actions to number plates using thr administration srreen.

The list below provides a sample of typical actions upon vehicle recognition:



raise barrier



change traffic lights




display LCD text
play WAV file



alert supervisor via SMS/email



deny access




open live video/audio connection
trigger recording via DVR/NVR (including pre-recording)



store image of vehicle/plate/driver



increase frame rate for higher quality recording

12

Number/License Plate Searching and Retrieval
An intuitive user interface ensures that information captured by Virage Security and Surveillance ANPR is easily
accessible and that key events can be readily identified by security personnel. Virage DVR/NVR provides extensive event
viewing and searching options including instant plate matching, partial plate matching as well as a full range of options
to search by specific parameters including camera, date, time, alert code, plate and category. Where multiple cameras are
in operation, users can search all cameras simultaneously through a single interface, or if desired, narrow their search to
resu lts from a specified camera. Users can create 'hot lists' of specified vehicles they w ish to track closely and compare
any identified number/license plate to predefi ned lists or perform full vehicle and driver database matching in order to
match identified vehicles with any entry within the database.

..

,_, _ .
,..,._.., I

_,_...,. I

_,.........
bfeet-etw

,
I

, ..... v.- I

0-0...•ND 1...,.. ..,..1efl11

Figure 7 • Viragt ANPRfaci/;tates search and rdritva/ ofkty events.

If images from an overview camera are available, these can be displayed adj acent to the footage of the number plate
enabling operators to view driver or vehicle images alongside number plate images. Any metadata associated which has
been included in the database entry, such as registered vehicle owner, address and traffic records is presented alongside
each recogn ized number plate to enable operators to gain instant visibility into the history of any identified vehicle. For
optimum performance and in order to maximize storage, Virage Security and Surveillance employ advanced techniques
(see page 2).

13

Intelligent Scene Analysis System
As risk management becomes an increasingly important consideration for international corporations and governments
alike, so does the need for effective CCTV systems and technologies which allow organizations to detect and understand
the significance of observed behaviors more accurately. In order to maximize the investment in such services and
improve the standard of surveillance operations, organizations should invest in systems which enable them to interpret
and understand the significance of images gathered as part of CCTV surveillance operations more closely. Virage Security
and Surveillance iSAS has been proven to increase the efficiency and efficacy of surveillance operations dramatically
by automatically detecting, analyzing and interpreting all activity within a field of view. Trusted by key law enforcement
agencies, governments, retailers and major transport service providers, Virage iSAS significantly complements all
surveillance operations.

Traditional CCTV Surveillance
The overall efficacy of any CCTV system is entirely dependent upon the
extent to which individuals are able to recognize and respond to the video
surveillance signals presented to them. Human error accounts for virtually
all failures to respond appropriately to video surveillance signals. Recent
industry figures suggest that up to 85% of on-screen information goes
unnoticed once a system operator has been on duty for a mere fifteen
minutes, rendering a typical CCTV system desperately inefficient.
Multiple duties and discontinuity in personnel, such as shift changes
and high staff turnover, contribute to reduced efficiency and dramatically
decrease the quality of surveillance operations. In addition, failures in

Figure 8

concentration and consciousness can impact greatly. Human concentration
span typically wanes after 45 minutes according to recent scientific studies. Typical surveillance shifts lasting up to 12
hours far exceed the normal human concentration span and contribute significantly to failures to identify and respond to
unusual behaviors. Even when an operator is fully focused on a surveillance task, a number of low level failures in the
human consciousness are responsible for failure to detect important activity:

• Change blindness: visual disruption within a scene e.g. switching between multiple screens or blinking,
can result in vital information being missed.
• Inattentional blindness: when the brain is focused on one particular activity, for example, counting
vehicles leaving a car park, it will frequently become unable to respond to other stimuli.
• Attentional blink: when the brain shifts its focus from one activity to another, events can be missed in
the time it takes to transfer concentration from one activity to the other.
• Repetition blindness: repeated sequences of similar items can cause some events to be missed.

14

Virage Intelligent Scene Analysis
Virage Security and Surveillance developed Intelligent Scene Analysis System (iSAS) in consultation with key security
agencies to improve the efficiency and efficacy of surveillance operations. Complementing existing surveillance
procedures, Virage iSAS enables organizations to anticipate and detect potential threats or illegal action, instantly
and automatically, and take proactive preventative action against any security concerns. Ideally suited to complex
multi-camera environments such as airports, major transport networks and government buildings, iSAS enables
organizations to monitor multiple locations simultaneously and, most importantly, monitor for different behaviors within
each scene.
By detecting suspicious behaviors, identifying potential security threats and providing alerts entirely automatically,
Virage enables CCTV operators to focus their activities on behaviors which require attention and verification by a
security professional. A full range of features including advanced VMD, non motion detect, object sizing, object
tracking and object counting enable surveillance officers to understand the potential significance of any motion or
object within view.
ACCESS
CONTROL

PERIMETER
SECURITY

AUDIO
ALERT

PDA / EMAIL

TRAFFIC
MONITORING

PUBLIC AREA
SECURITY

LIVE AUDIO
+ VIDEO
CAMERA

PTZ CONTROL

TRANSPORT
SECURITY

DATABASE

REMOTE
SECURITY

DIGITAL VIDEO
RECORDINGS

Figure 9 - iSAS is suitable for a range of environments and easily connects to existing third party systems.

Instant Recognition and Analysis
In order to correctly identify suspicious behavior, it is essential that any object or movement is placed in context. Using
advanced techniques, iSAS identifies and categorizes objects in a scene by size, shape, color, speed, direction, location
and time of day and, over time, builds up a history of these objects. By then putting each object and motion in
context, using techniques such as comparing object histories, VMD, non motion detect, object sizing, object tracking,
object counting and behavioural analysis, Virage Security and Surveillance iSAS enables surveillance staff to interpret
the threat that any given object or motion may pose more accurately. iSAS performs multiple levels of recognition and
analysis on video data from simple tasks such as identifying movement within a scene through to complex behavioral
analysis. Full details of recognition techniques are detailed below.

15

Video Motion Detect
VMD is the most basic form of recognition which identifi es movement of objects within a specified field of view, for
example, a person entering a restricted area.

- __,

-~·

-

- -.J-- •


Figure 10 - iSAS monitors traffic on a motorway.

Non Motion Detect
Non Motion Detect (NMD) has the ability to recognize static objects within a scene such as unattended baggage in an
airport. Users may set parameters to define the types of object which should be detected and also define the length of
time an object should be static in order to be classed as a stationary object.

Figure 11 • Using ad.aT1ted NN ha.std OCR lethniqua, iSAS NMD can identify stationary
objects which may ronstitute a threat.

Object Sizing
Detecting the size of an object or a group of objects in a field of view alerts surveillance staff to situations which may
requ ire a response. For example, w here iSAS is used for monitoring traffic flow, if a traffic jam is detected, surveillance
staff can be alerted immediately and if necessary, an additional lane could be opened to ease congestion.

16

Object Tracking
In addition to identifying objects, Virage Security and Survei llance iSAS can track objects entirely automatically
between multiple cameras. While an object remains in a field of view, it is tracked automatically using the coordinate
information to control a Pan Tilt Zoom (PTZ) camera.

Object Counting
By automatically categorizing identified objects into known types, Virage iSAS can generate counts for d ifferent
categories. Multiple counts can also be configured, for example, iSAS can count the number of ca rs entering a car park
and the number of cars leaving simultaneously.

Behavioral Analysis
Behavioral analysis offers the most advanced form of scene recognition. Once an obj ect has been identified and
is being tracked by Virage Security and Surveillance iSAS, the system is capable of employing more sophisticated
techniques for further analysis. Virage iSAS is able to differentiate between va rious scenarios by placing all identified
behavior within the context of normal behaviors as specified by the user. By applying an associated motion history to
an object, iSAS can automatically undertake complex behavioral analysis in ord er to recognize unusual or suspicious
activity and alert surveillance staff to this immediately.

Figure 12 · iSAS u.tts object histories to idenliJY unusual or suspicious bthaviors.

Training and Configuration
As each surveillance and monitoring environment is unique, Virage Security and Surveil lance gives organizations the
flexibi lity to set and refine their own defi nitions as to what behavior could constitute a potential security threat and
also define the precise action to be taken once a potential threat has been correctly identified. Training and configuring
an iSAS system does not require any spec ialist input from Vi rage and may be performed by any competent system
operator.

17

Using an intuitive user interface operators can train the system, using live or prerecorded images, to recognize
unusual behavior which may present a threat and establish multiple definitions for multiple locations. For example,
the user can train the system to trigger an alert to unattended baggage in the arrivals hall of an airport which would
automatically result in a prerecorded message over the PA system. Baggage being held by airline staff however would
not trigger such a response. Virage supports a range of training methods including:

• Non alerting content: where the system is introduced to video containing no specific events.
• Alerting content: involves training the system on specific events contained within the video.


Simulating alerts: by inserting objects into the scene which can then be used to generate example
events.



Alert verification: the most sophisticated training procedure consists of using pre-generated alerts
in order to enhance system training and improve overall performance. By allocating a series of pregenerated alerts into specific categories, such as examples of suspicious and unsuspicious behavior,
the system can be configured to identify behaviors more accurately. Such user verification allows
the system to build up a model of known behaviors and gives the system greater insight into what
constitutes usual and unusual behaviors.

Figure 13 • iSAS can bt traintd to recogniu sptrific bthlll'iort and trigger alerts as required.

To allow organizations to monitor a w ide area against a set of diverse criteria, Virage Security and Survei llance iSAS
can be applied to any new or existing CCTV system and loaded up with different configu rations for different cameras
or camera positions. Moreover, iSAS can be configured to identify multiple categories of alarms w ithin a scene at
the same time, each with its own set of specified alert actions. Other configuration options include masking a scene
so that objects w ithin a certain peri meter are not detected, masking alerts generated by any obj ect within a specified
area, setting time or occurance limits on alarms generated per incident and full customization of results notification
with the inclusion of metadata associated with system, camera, data, time and alarm code.

18

Architecture
Virage Security and Surveillance iSAS can be used on a stand alone basis for alarm recording only or fully integrated
with Virage DVR/NVR and/or other Virage products for advanced functionality. In addition to providing continuous
survei llance and alerting through advanced instant intelligent scene analysis, fu ll DVR/NVR integration enables
organizations to store images for post-event analysis. An intuitive user interface enables operators to retrieve recorded
video quickly and easily in order to find specific events and carry out forensic analysis retrospectively.

Figure 14 · An intuilivt user inlerfact enahlts opera/Qrs to search and rttrill'< images easily.

A flexible architecture and modular approach makes iSAS suitable for point of activity and remote surveillance
operations. iSAS monitors direct analogue feeds from the cameras so once an event is detected, alerts can be streamed
over the network to a remote location. Such a system provides optimal resolution for identifying objects within a scene
whilst only requiring minimal bandwidth to relay the events and any associated alerts to a remote location. For remote
surveillance operati ons, video can be streamed in MPEG4 or MPEG2 format and analyzed at a remote location. Where
alerts are generated from the video stream, these can be processed locally or relayed to a remote location. Using this
technique, banks of iSAS may be switched using dynamic prioritization across any number of cameras in order to
support large scale remote surveillance operations.

19

Biometrics and Audio Recognition
Audio Recognition
Virage Security and Surveillance speech recognition technology enables security organizations to search files in
video, radio and telephony systems instantly. Virage’s speech technology is fundamentally different; whereas other
technologies adopt a simple phonetic approach using only acoustic information, Virage achieves a higher level of
understanding through language modeling.
Language modeling involves concept extraction in conjunction with acoustic-phonetic methods to achieve significantly
greater accuracy and better results. Simple acoustic-phonetic methods alone fail to achieve good speech to text
translation. The acoustic-phonetic approach doesn’t differentiate, for example, between “can I” and “can eye”. In this
example, where the desired option is “can I”, Virage’s speech technologies employ intelligent probabilistic language
modeling to understand the context of what is being said and in this way select the appropriate option “can I”.
Virage’s audio recognition functionality includes:

• Speaker independence: the system is trained on a large balanced corpus of data encompassing many
different variables such as different accents or male-female pitch and tone - this means the acoustic
models are speaker independent. The solution works out-of-the-box with no manual training although
customization for specific accents or speakers can be done
• Extensive vocabularies: there is no arbitrary limit on vocabulary size
• Speaker identification: Virage audio recognition can be trained to enable individual speakers to be
identified
• Word spotting and phrase recognition: Virage can search audio by standard keyword as well as
conceptual methods. Conceptual searching returns references to conceptually related information
ranked by relevance or contextual distance.
• Patented Autonomy technology: reduces CPU and memory usage for increased speed of operations
and improved performance
• Support for both high quality audio such as broadcast as well as telephony

Fingerprint and 3D Face Recognition
Virage Security and Surveillance also offer other powerful biometric identification tools in addition to audio recognition.
The Virage fingerprint recognition solution uses the same established fingerprint minutae techniques as a police
fingerprint expert – this enables fingerprints to be located and matched against a database of millions in order to
successfully identify individuals. In addition, Virage Security and Surveillance provides facial recognition technology
where other biometrics, such as fingerprint analysis, are not suitable. Facial recognition techniques are often used for
example where suspects need to be identified at a distance and/or non-cooperatively. However, 2D face recognition
has always had fundamental limitations with regard to posture, expression and lighting. Virage Security and
Surveillance employ superior three-dimensional recognition techniques rather than the traditional 2D facial matching
process for optimum performance.

20

Command and Control
Given the complex nature of security and surveillance operations and the vast amount of heterogeneous data which
requires aggregation and analysis, the need for advanced technologies which can make sense of information and alert
the relevant parties to crucial intelligence has never been so great. The Virage Security and Surveillance Command and
Control infrastructure enables all Virage products to interact seamlessly. It has been specifically designed to allow easy
integration of third party equipment such as alarm panels, display units etc. Although certain Virage products can be
deployed for simple functions such as standalone capture and archive, in order to perform more advanced functions,
Virage provides three levels of Command and Control for a range of different environments and needs; from simplistic
rule-based models to highly complex, intelligent solutions based on conceptual analysis.

Level I
Virage Command and Control Level I offers a simple rule-based solution. Any number of Virage products can be
connected with the Command and Control system which performs as per instructions pre-defined by a systems
administrator. For example, if Virage DVR and EPOS were set up with Level I, the system could be programmed to
highlight particularly unusual till transactions such as large sums of cashback on the logged till transaction data.
Virage NVR and CSM might also be deployed with Level I to monitor traffic at a port and could be trained to raise a
barrier for particular vehicles whilst disallowing entry for others.

Level II
In addition to performing simple rule-based functions, Virage Level II Command and Control handles logical
interactions between disparate pieces of data. Level II offers additional capabilities which enable instant analysis
and logical calculations to be carried out on data flows. Virage DVR, iSAS and Command and Control Level II might
be used for example, to monitor vehicle speeds between points; by identifying the same object and calculating the
distance between the two points, the system could calculate distance traveled within a given time frame and therefore
what speed the vehicle/s must have been traveling at. Another example might be deploying NVR and ANPR to monitor
carpark usage in multiple locations and calculate usage percentages based on initial numbers collected i.e. the system
could highlight that the central carpark has the highest usage at 50% whilst north and south car parks have 20% and
30% usage respectively.

Level III
Virage Command and Control Level III has been fully integrated with Autonomy’s technology to deliver a complete
state-of the-art solution for all security and surveillance needs no matter how complex. Through this intelligent
platform, Virage offers users the ability to form a conceptual understanding of information and recognize potential
threats automatically. Autonomy’s core technology is used by some of the most prestigious intelligence and defense
agencies worldwide including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Department of Defense, The British
Ministry of Defense, the Olympic Games Security Committee, National Nuclear Security Administration and numerous
other intelligence and defense agencies worldwide. One of the key reasons organizations choose Autonomy, is its
ability to discover “the unknown” which has a significant impact upon the efficacy of many world-renowned security
agencies.

21

Autonomy’s technology forms a conceptual understanding of all forms of unstructured, semi-structured and structured
data be it visual, auditory or alphanumeric in character. At its core, the technology uses a combination of Bayesian
Inference and Shannon’s Information Theory to automatically extract the key concepts from any piece/s of information.
As a mathematical platform, it is not constrained by the limitations of linguistic or rules-based models. Distinct
concepts, ideas and behaviors are exposed within any data set on the basis of mathematically derived coherence
and not rigid conformity to predefined structures or characteristics. This enables the technology to recognize the
potential threat for the first time, both at a tactical and strategic level, without prior training or insight. Operationally,
this results in an intelligent surveillance infrastructure capable of instantly and automatically fusing vast quantities of
heterogeneous data, identifying interrelationships, spotting important trends and alerting surveillance officers to this
vital intelligence. Additional functionality can be seamlessly integrated into the system in order to perform further
advanced data fusion operations.

Additional Level III Functionality
Conceptual Retrieval and Search
Content can be searched simultaneously in any language and any format, wherever it is stored. Search options
include: Conceptual Search, Natural Language Retrieval, Query By Example, Refine By Example and Cross-Language
Search. The technology retrieves and returns references to conceptually related information and results are presented
with summaries and hyperlinks to similar information instantly and automatically.

Hyperlinking
This feature enables automated matching and identifying of similar pieces of information. Powerful automatic
hyperlinking functionality identifies vital relationships between information, enabling intelligent contextual crossreferencing of content without the need for user input.
By completely removing the requirement for manual input through its use of intelligent conceptual and contextual
association, Virage ensures the instantly generated links are always up-to-date and highly relevant to users. For
example, if CSM and Level III Command and Control were deployed to monitor vehicles and containers at a port, the
technology could make intelligent associations between information in a police database, imagery captured by DVR/
NVR and data within CSM, to report stolen or illegitimate vehicles and/or drivers. The technology might also link to
further intelligence of other illicit activities being performed by these vehicle drivers. Not only are people kept informed
of the latest, most relevant information but also - in this way - duplication and time spent navigating for information
and overall costs are significantly reduced:







Reduces the cost of maintaining unstructured information within any environment
Reduces the time taken to navigate to related information
Reduces duplication of effort
Keeps people informed and right up-to-date
Retains browsers or consumers on a website through dynamically recommending further content and
products

22

Clustering
Automatic Clustering enables organizations to analyze large sets of document data or even user-profile information
and automatically identify inherent information clusters and consequently trends and themes. Clustering provides
organizations with instant high-level visibility of the knowledge base, eliminating knowledge gaps and enabling the
organization to react quickly where necessary. For example, using Level Ill Command and Control, number/license
plates captured by ANPR could be clustered and matched against a police database. In this way, potential correlations
within data - such as repeat offences committed by the same d river attempting to d isguise his actions by using
d ifferent vehicles - could be uncovered and acti on taken to prevent future occurrences of the same instance. Other
benefits include:



Instant high-level visibility of the knowledge base



Automatically identifies information trends and themes



Eliminates knowledge gaps



Optimizes an organization's information flow

• Reacts to information changes
Powerful visualization tools make it easy for users to understand and interpret data sets. Virage provides two intuitive
Java-based user interfaces to make clusters visible:



2D Cluster Map: is used to identify conceptual similarities and differences between clusters and
display them in 2D. Based on Java Server Pages (JSP), the landscape is generated from the interrelationships between clusters and the documents contained within those clusters. Designed to provide
a single overview of the clusters contained within the data, clusters that are close together correlate to
higher degrees of similarity, whilst dissimilar clusters are situated further apart.



Spectrograph: this user interface displays the relationship between clusters in successive periods and
sets of data. Clusters are presented as a JSP-based 3D spectrograph whereby the x-axis represents
information over time (enabling users to visualize how clusters develop over a given time period), whilst
the y-axis represents the range of concepts defined within the knowledge base (see figure 15).

PQATAl IN A IOK _ . ... .

-·- ...............
,.....
......

~t-~~10 ..................

,..... ~IMW--~
..... ~.DM
lWtll*..--. ..............
...

..

........ '-'l ...

......... ....,....,... ..... "'" .....
_,.,.,.., .......................,.,..... ,..,..°""' ...... ,__.pq
~

..
c

~



-

~

...... . ....,..,. . .. w.:Milll!t

-~=--="::!'..,__....,

l.

..._ _ _

-_

~"'

............_...

........
.,.w ...1.......................,,...., •
r....._ . ..,..,.tt-a

~ ~....... ~,......... Cllrrtl ................

-

oat ...

..... ..... ------- ...-~.._
GHil
~ INiiik'""•

~-

Figure 15

23

Automatic Profiling
Automatic Profiling can be used by organizations to accurately understand individuals’ interests based on browsing,
content consumption or content contribution. By generating a multi-faceted conceptual profile of each user, based on
both explicit profiles (agents) and implicit profiles (click-through and submission), the feature creates a very current
understanding of user interests without the need for any explicit input on their part. Profiling facilitates and speeds
up surveillance operations as it enables vital intelligence to be delivered to the user without their needing to actively
search for it.

Personalized Agents
Personalized Agents can be set up to proactively deliver highly relevant, accurate information to users. Agents can be
trained to look for conceptually related themes from concepts a user defines either implicitly or explicitly as part of
their profile. By continuously monitoring live information streams and matching relevant, conceptually related content
against profiles, Agents can uncover data that may potentially hold new significance for intelligence operations –
increasing overall knowledge and improving response rates. Through its automatic approach, Agents assist surveillance
staff to monitor activity and information which may potentially be critical and which might otherwise have been missed
or required significant investigative processes to discover.

Intelligent Alerting
Advanced Alerting functionality monitors information in order to automatically and instantly alert users to information
which may be of interest to them based on their profile or the agents they have set up. For example, if a surveillance
officer had set up agents to monitor and deliver information on a particular suspect, if the agents detected similarly
conceptually related activity being discussed by another person, the system could automatically trigger an alert in order
for security staff to be alerted to this potential correlation. Instant alert mechanisms could be web interfaces, e-mails,
SMS or digital alarms amongst others.

24

Architecture
Command and Control Level Ill is a scalable, data agnostic platform, independent and modular by design, w hich can
very simply be integrated into current or legacy systems to provide automatic conceptual analysis across all data and
deliver a unifi ed intelligence exchange across all platforms. The system acts as an intelligent 'information brokerage' to
aggregate, combine and deliver a unified stream of information from a variety of applications and sources even when
they fai l to share a common language, data structure and format, logic or comm unication methodology. Command and
Control Level Ill can seamlessly be integrated with Virage Security and Surveillance EPOS, CSM, ANPR and iSAS for
advanced intelligence operations (see figure 16).

Figure 16

25

Security
Maintaining security and ensuring only authorized personnel gain access to sensitive data is key to almost every
organization. Increasingly complex IT environments mean there are often several systems in place each requiring a
different set of authentication procedures. Virage’s infrastructure exactly mirrors the security entitlement required to
deliver the right information to the right people according to who is entitled to see it. The world's largest and most
secure intelligence organizations have deployed Autonomy to safeguard their most sensitive information assets.
Virage Security and Surveillance is unique in its approach to managing and maintaining security and is able to
seamlessly integrate with existing third party systems whilst respecting existing security. Advanced methodologies for,
user authentication, data protection and verification ensure the right people have access to legitimate data. In addition,
advanced functions such as mapping significantly improve system performance within even the largest, most complex
environments. These unique advantages make it the number one choice for many leading organizations today.

Security Integration
By integrating fully with other security equipment and procedures, Virage Security and Surveillance respects existing
security and enables organizations to respond appropriately and efficiently to ever changing requirements. Virage is a
world leader in seamlessly integrating with a range of diverse third-party information sources, such as Documentum,
Lotus Notes, Oracle Server or OpenText.

Secure Data Authentication and Personnel Verification
Extensive user authentication, data protection and verification procedures make Virage suitable for the most demanding
security and surveillance environments. Virage can provide all aspects of security management including document and
intra-document access control against user, group and role level entitlement; this ensures only authorized personnel
gain access to sensitive data. Encrypted inter-machine and intra-process communication protocols are woven into
the fabric of Virage’s modular design at a fundamental level, providing secure transmission of information throughout
the architecture. In addition, Virage ensures the integrity of all data captured is preserved through results encryption
and image watermarking. Full audit tracking enables authorized personnel to gain immediate visibility into the history
associated with any record in the system.

Intellectual Asset Protection System (IAS)
Virage’s Intellectual Asset Protection System (IAS) is a comprehensive and modular security architecture that uniquely
provides:

• Asset scalability through Mapped Security
• Group membership scalability through Group Servers
• Operational granularity via a Document-centric model enabling secure real time operation and total
flexibility over your security policies

26

Conclusion
Security and surveillance operations are widely regarded as an integral and essential part of today's society. As
organizations at all levels, ranging from law enforcement agencies and governments to large corporations and public
bodies seek to enhance the security and safety of assets and personnel, security and surveillance technologies are an
increasingly commonplace and necessary part of our daily lives.
Growing demands to protect public safety, buildings and commercial assets accentuate the need for robust security
and surveillance solutions in a wide range of environments. Consequently, surveillance techniques are increasingly
prevalent, especially in many European countries where CCTV systems are now extremely customary. While CCTV
cameras in themselves do much to establish public and corporate confidence, the effectiveness of such systems when
used in isolation is often limited. Organizations seeking to implement a truly effective and responsible security and
surveillance strategy must consider embracing additional systems such as EPOS, CSM, ANPR, iSAS and BIS as well as
addressing the way in which data and images obtained from such techniques are recorded and stored. Furthermore,
as security requirements become increasingly complex and threats posed to individuals, corporations and nations more
sophisticated, it is ever more critical that organizations gain a holistic view of their security and surveillance procedures.
The ability to correlate and cross reference data gained from multiple applications such as ANPR and iSAS with other
sources allows organizations to adopt an intelligence led approach to security and surveillance operations. As part of
the Autonomy Group, Virage Security and Surveillance offers a comprehensive solution which enables organizations
to implement key solutions for specific requirements as well as supporting the overall objectives of their security
and surveillance strategy. By incorporating Autonomy’s core technology, Virage Security and Surveillance is able to
automatically understand and interpret the potential significance of multiple pieces of security data, and correlate
that information with other known intelligence to enable organizations to implement comprehensive security and
surveillance solutions. Virage’s unique approach brings new visibility and intelligence to security and surveillance
operations and equips organizations with the technology they need in order to safeguard public, private and corporate
assets and respond effectively to security threats today and in the future.

27

The information contained in this document represents the current opinion as of the date of publication of Autonomy Systems Ltd.
regarding the issues discussed. Autonomy's opinion is based upon our review of competitor product information publicly available as
of the date of this document.
Because Autonomy must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be commitment on the part of
Autonomy, and Autonomy cannot attest to the accuracy of any information presented after the date of publication.
This document is for informational purposes only; Autonomy is not making warranties, express or implied, in this document.

(Autonomy Inc. and Autonomy Systems Limited are both subsidiaries of Autonomy Corporation plc.)

Document Path: ["98-autonomy-white-paper-virage.pdf"]

e-Highlighter

Click to send permalink to address bar, or right-click to copy permalink.

Un-highlight all Un-highlight selectionu Highlight selectionh