Name: Catalogue

Text: roke
Support to Operations

Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

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Rohe Manor Research Ltd
Roke Manor, Romsey
Hampshire, SOS1 OZN, UK
T: +44 (0)1794 833000
F: +44 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www_roke.co.ukidefence
A Siemens company

cAT
Certifinate Number 05609

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Defence
1

Turning technology into military advantage

roke
Roke M a n o r Research Ltd
a Siemens company •

Defence solutions from Roke
From our List X site in Hampshire, Roke has been working
as a trusted partner of the MoD for over 50 years
In this time the world has seen significant changes in the nature of conflict and the defence market continues
to evolve. In uncertain times we need solutions which have the flexibility and agility to meet the needs of
future operations.
Roke is a technology company which has experience and understanding across defence lines of development
(DLODs).This, together with a background of working in commercial markets, provides a powerful combination
which can rapidly deliver battle winning defence solutions.
Roke's system engineering skills and defence domain knowledge ensure that customer requirements are
comprehensively captured and analysed to produce solutions that are optimised for performance, cost and
timescales. Combining COTS/MOTS components with selective bespoke hardware and software development
produces rapid solutions to challenging customer requirements — backed up by Roke's ability to provide
in-service support.
Whether you need cutting edge products, a customer friend or a development partner — our business
is helping you to solve your difficult problems — quickly and efficiently.

2 www.roke.caukidefence

Our focus remains on the development, exploitation, and through life support of battle winning defence
technology through the following key areas:
1
1 MOTS products portfolio

In-use around the world: from Electronic Warfare, to radar

I

Full product development from a concept through to field ready product design
Production and
in-service support

IIP

On-site manufacturing & test facility. Deployment preparation and training w'rth
in-service support

Quantifying military benefit

Tools to rapidly determine military benefit highlighting risks relating to operationa.•
effectiveness and technology insertion

Enabling Future Capability

Future capability research and development programs

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[email protected] I 3

Support to operations
Delivering solutions to meet urgent requirements in
current operations
MoD needs dependable suppliers that can rapidly close capability gaps by fully understanding the challenges of
delivering military capability to meet current operations.This includes:
• Rapidly engineered systems that optimise the balance between reliable functionality and time to deliver
• The need to minimise pre-deployment training to realise full operational capability
• Full awareness of and design to minimise the logistics footprint
Rapid engineering solutions — Roke is an R&D organisation with a significant portfolio of products that can form
the basis of enhanced military capability. Solutions can be rapidly designed and implemented using Roke's highly
skilled engineering sovereign workforce using robust but flexible processes.
Minimising training requirements —Through. for example, extensive use of graphical user interfaces, Roke
solutions minimise pre-deployment training, which is an essential prerequisite for achieving full operational
capability in current operations. Roke offeqs full pre-deployment training with system delivery.
Minimised logistics footprint —Wth extensive background in the design of civil communications technology Roke
is able to take advantage of compact power-efficient design know-how which results in s y
favourable size, weight and power characteristics, leading to more sustainable military capability.
Roke has a proven track record of successful UOR and Force Protection delivery into the MoD.

4 I wwwroke,co,ukidefence

Case study: Urgent Operational Requirement
for a 'Ceasefire Violation Monitoring' system
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Customer

British Army

Challenge

Provide the British Army deployed in a peace keeping role with the capability to detect
any ceasefire violation within 6 months

1 0 Approach
Benefits

Our world class expertise in acoustics enabled us to deliver an operational solution
called 'HALO (Hostile Artillery Locator) with the ability to detect any hostile fire up
to 30km away
HALO provided the British Army with a cost effective, flexible system that can be used
24 hours a day in all weather conditions, in any location to detect ceasefire violation,
developed and delivered to timescales in 6 months

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delence©roke•co,uk 5

Enhanced military capability in-use around the world:
from modelling and surveillance, to front-line deployment
Roke has combined patented technology, high volume, high density design skills and proven processes with
multi-million pound investment to build up a product portfolio that underpins our customers operations;
operations that may last for decades.
Combining these state of the art products with the most suitable COTS/MOTS equipment enables us to
meet our military customers' requirements, providing enhanced capability in Defence and Aerospace.
This capability is available now; off the shelf from Rake and our worldwide resellers.
To fulfil unique requirements, products are customisable, through the retention of ownership and design within
Rake. Customers gain access to rapid-prototypes to' provide early concept and trials equipment through use of
our in-house production facility.
•I
Roke has tailored solutions for many major international organisations and this experience enables us to create
innovative, world leading, reliable products.These are backed up by our full life-cycle support structure, there
when you need it, 24/7.

6 I wwwroke.cauldclefence

Electronic Warfare
-

[he Resolve system offers a modular, scalable and integrated
capability for the intercept, geolocation and further exploit of
tactical communications signals within the HF to SHF bands

Integrated tactical electronic warfare system

[resolve f i r
QuadTac

Quadrant

N-ChannelAGS

AGS

Tactical direction

Broadband HF receive

Acquisition and

finding antenna

antenna system

geolocation senscir

Acquisition and
or
geolocation sensor

RIMMIEla

Electronic surveillance
Superresolution Direction Finding,Wideband HF Receivers,

and Tactical HF DF Antennas
Compact Crossed Loop Antenna

D

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A range of electronic surveillance products ranging from •
specialist antennas, arrays, wideband tuners, wideband digital
receivers, and N-Channel wideband digital receiver systems
MCDWRI6

16

Defence solutions
o w i r
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TIA

Acoustic weapon location system

Miniature Radar Altimeter

EpsilonTM

The world's smallest radar solution for

Radar cross section modelling

IJA\ls and aerial targets
-hIM

Leading acoustic weapon location
system, developed under UOR
for British Army peace keeping
operations. In-service for over I 0
years. it is deployed in-theatre by
several nations'.

Windows software to predict the
Radar Cross Section (RCS) of targets
such as aircraft ships, and tanks. Highly
versatile and proven it is the most
rigorous and accurate RCS solver in
its class.

Provides robust, precise
performance with 'plug & play'
installation into all major LJAV
platforms and aerial targets

SIM&

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defence©rokecauk I 7

Product development
Full lifecycle development and production support
By tapping into decades of critical product development experience, and benefiting from Roke's product
development processes, customers can significantly lower the risks normally associated with product development:
securing a rapid and flexible response to the technical and schedule challenges of urgent requirements, and
managing fully scaled-up, higher volume, product development where factory and subcontractor risks become
a major factor
For the majority of Roke's customers, size, weight, reliability, scalability, schedule and cost are critical, so determining
the optimal cost/performance/schedule trade-offs is paramount to our approach. In addition, Rokes experience
within the commercial sector allows us to take the best (often cutting-edge) commercially available technology
and production methods and re-apply them into the defence arena.
We offer a complete, in-house, service covering everything from hardware, software and mechanical design to
manufacture and factory support including associate
of thermal, mechanical, environmental and reliability analysis).


8 I www.roke.caukidefence

Case study: Personal Locator Beacon development
Signature Industries (SI)

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Challenge

Looking to build on their excellent reputation in the search and rescue beacon market,
Signature Industries were looking for a development partner to deliver the next
generation Personal Locator Beacon (PLB)

Approach

Initially we were asked to quote for the electronics development of the new PLB but
after a few meetings SI were convinced that we were capable of developing the entire
product We undertook the entire product development which included concept,
development, electronics, mechanics, software and development testing. Production
Automated Test Equipment (ATE) was also developed for SI at their request.

Benefits delivered

The resulting Personal Locator Beacon not only ensured that Signature Industries
secured their lead customers, but also set new standards at a global level for functionality
and performance versus weight•The PLB ensured that Signature Industries remain in a
dominant market position.

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defence©roke.cauk I 9

Commercial expertise applied to military product manufacture
At Roke we have developed an integrated and flexible approach to the development of products that allows us
to undertake both in-house development and design for large volume production. Our integrated in-house design
and production facilities include both electronic and mechanical CAD and surface mount assembly equipment
supported by a comprehensive test and inspection capability. Our
. k
This capability, augmented by a reliable and trusted supply chain, allows us to offer a complete bespoke concept to
product service to our customers.
The established core team of service delivery managers and field technical specialists deliver support of
COTS/MOTS hardware, Roke developed applications and infrastructure in high-security environments utilising
methodologies such as IT Infrastructure Library® (MO and Integrated Logistic Support (ILS) to efficiently
manage incidents, problems, configuration changes, obsolescence management and system upgrades. Delivering
added business benefits to the Whole Life Costs (WLC) of the operations of systems by maximising availability
and reliability.

10 I wwworoke.caukidefence

Overview
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prototype/product lifecycles

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Approach

Our integrated approach seamlessly links electronics design from concept to schematic
capture through to PCB layout and build with our mechanical CAD and production
facilities. Our mechanical CAD tools are also fully integrated with CNC milling and
turning, and fast prototyping facilities within our model shop,

Benefits

This integrated approach to low volume prototype and product development allows
us to respond to customer requirements with very short timescales. It also gives great
flexibility throughout the entire product development lifecycle, enabling design changes
to be implemented in an efficient, timely and cost effective manner

defenceroke.co.uk I I

1

Analysing benefits against cost versus risk
Quantifying military benefit requires an understanding of how a portfolio of technological or non-technological
investment options is likely to enhance military capability.
Traditionally military benefit has been determined through qualitative means, typically presented in the form of
a benefits map that has been constructed through workshops or brainstorming sessions. Whilst this approach
.
of relationships within the map and locating interventions to build up the business case. What is not understood
so well is the complexity and inter-dependency that exists between the technical performance and military
effectiveness space to have confidence that operational benefits will be realised.
Roke has developed a comprehensive methodology which models the capability under investigation through
representation of key information needs and flows and derives a benefits map from it.The methodology extends
the role of the benefits map to provide an understanding of where the greatest gains from investment in the
benefits chain can be made and what the nature of those investments should be.
The methodology has most recently been applied to measure the benefits associated with C4I interventions
determined from the NEC for Close Combat research programme.This work has drawn on the guidance
provided from 5P777 to provide a
radically different interventions, from across the DLODs, in terms of quantified measures of C2 effectiveness.

12 wwwroke.caukidefence

Case study: Providing advice-based research to the
Ministry of Defence
Customer

1 1 1

1

i r Challenge

The MoD needed advice on how networked communications systems could enhance
the performance of their front-line troops
With Roke acting as prime, we constructed and led a consortium of 13 companies.
This included academia, human factors and logistics specialists, large system integrators.

,
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g j operational analysts and military experts to address all aspects of the research.
Benefits delivered

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Roke was able to analyse and solve complex issues using the different strengths of the
consortium members.The advice derived from the research has now been used by
MoD to steer the communications needs of the major equipment programmes such
as Bowman and Future Integrated SoldierTechnology (FIST).The MoD has also been
able to capitalise on the combined abilities of the consortium to address other difficult
challenges in related areas of work.

defence©roke.cauk I I 3

Innovation and technological development are critical to
maintaining military advantage against ever evolving threats
One key aspect of our success is our ability to identify future technologies and map them to known future
capability gaps.

"IkWorking at the forefront of technology allows us to identify forthcoming technologies that have the potential to
address future military requirements. We can then, where appropriate, undertake initial de-risking work through
the development of white papers, software simulations and laboratory demonstrations of concepts•This work
helps inform technology roadmaps and develop the requirements for future military systems.
We are a key contributor in the UK Defence Technology Centre (DTC) community with top table membership in
2 of the DICs:
• Systems Engineering for Autonomous Systems (SEAS) DTC
• Electra Magnetic Remote Sensing (EMRS) DTC
Recent work in autonomous systems includes mission planning, data gathering, data analysis, vehicle control and
vehicle recovery.

14 I wwwroke.co.ukidelence

Case study: STARTLE Biologically inspired threat assessment
Customer

Challenge

s r " r e
Provide autonomous systems with effective and efficient situational awareness, threat
detection and threat assessment

Approach

overhead detection component that utilises existing sensor output streams to identi
threats. Once identified, a rule-based system tasks sensor reassignment and algorithm
processing
to rapidly
confirm
the nature andresponse
immediacy
of the threat
Emulating the
mammalian
conditioned-fear
mechanism,
STARTLE uses a l o l

1
Benefits

STARTLE can be used to provide high-speed, low processing overhead threat
detection for autonomous systems with minimal processing/memory overhead,
This provides autonomous systems with rapid, accurate and reproducible reactions
to potential threats.

defence©roke.cauk1 15

roke‘

1

Rpke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

www.roke.csaukidefence
[email protected]

Roke Manor Research Ltd
Roke Manor, Romsey
Hampshire, S051 OZN, UK

,

1: +44 (0)1794 833000
F: +44 (0)1794 833433
33
[email protected]
www.roke.caukidelence

Roke Manor Research Limited 2009.
All rights reserved.
This publication is issued to provide outline information only which (unrest agreed by the company in
writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract
or be regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned.
The company reserves any right to alter without notice the specification, design, or conditions of supply
of any product or service.

Certificate Number Q05609

August 09 j D e f e n c e

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photo of SAMPSON Multi-Function Radar on T45 courtesy of AMS Limited

roke
Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

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STARTLE
STARTLE is a software architecture for efficient situation
awareness and threat assessment for autonomous platforms.

STARTLE is applicable to:
• External threat monitoring for UxVs
• Internal system status monitoring of UxVs
• External threat monitoring for manned vehicles as a mid-life enhancement using existing
or enhanced sensors

tro

What is STARTLE?
of STARTLE is a bio-inspired software architecture for efficient situation awareness. I threat detection and threat assessmer
autonomous platforms. The STARTLE architecture emulates the mammalian conditioned-fear response mechanism to provide
an efficient threat detection solution. STARTLE offers enhanced threat detection and assessment with reduced processing and
memory overheads when compared with conventional techniques. It does not require sensor duplication and the approach
simplifies the certification task, whilst offering potential savings in size and power demand.
STARTLE can be used to monitor internal status parameters as well as external threat indicators.
The approach can also be used to provide additional automatic situation monitoring for existing manned vehicles, piggybacking
on data from existing sensor fits.
Early threat warning can cue power management changes, e.g. starting up a gas turbine in readiness for increased power
demands for sensing and propulsion.

How does STARTLE work?
STARTLE employs a low processing overhead threat-detection component which makes use of the existing sensor output streams
to detect possible threats exploiting the sensor data which is already being collected for primary task sensor processing (such as imaging
for vehicle navigation).
STARTLE can exploit just the existing phmary-task sensor fit, or it can be supplied with additional threat detection sensors.
Once a potential threat has been identified, a rule-system is invoked to assess whether a threat is really a threat to the local platform.
The rule-system in turn tasks sensor re-assignment and sensor processing algorithm selection in order to best assess the threat.
The combination of high-speed, very light-weight threat detection coeing more detailed threat analysis allows for efficient operation,
requiring reduced processing/memory and sensor fits compared with standard sensor fusion techniques based on the conventional
PL/DFS data fusion process modet.

411
: a
STARTLE in a fast-time simulation of a
UGV undertaking a route clearance task

The development of STARTLE has been supported by the Ministry of Defence within the Sensor Exploitation theme of the
Systems Engineering for Autonomous Systems Defence Technology Centre (SEAS DTC).

STARTLE uses a fast threat detector and a goal-proving threat assessor to direct sensor assets and select processing algorithms,
emulating the mammalian brain's amygdala and sensory cortical areas, to efficiently assess possible threats. This allows

for more efficient and more focused use of available processing power.

STARTLE Architecture:
Feature
Vector
Multiplexer

Episodic Memory
(context)

Ar

7
Goal Driven
Threat Prover

Semantic Memory
("knowledge")

(attention)

Response
Mediator

Automatic
Protection System

STARTLE key components:
Feed forward threat detection
Typically a trained classifier eg an Artificial Neural Network
Makes use of existing sensor data streams
• F a s t throughput monitoring and alerting
• Triggers the rule system to assess potential threats
• Tr a i n e d under supervision
Goal proving threat assessor
• Typically a rule-based system
• Intelligently assesses a perceived threat to own platform
• Provides cued sensor re-tasking (rules explicitly request additional data to be collected from a particular sensor
processing algorithm)
• G i v e s traceability allowing reasoning to be validated

Deploying STARTLE
Threat detector training can be based on real or synthetic environment derived data, allowing a wide range of potential operational
scenarios to be investigated.
me

The rule system is compiled by domain experts and allows the system to request the most appropriate sensor data to confirm
potential threats. The use of a 'signed-off rule system will assist in gaining system deployment certification.
STARTLE has the potential to accommodate on-the-job learning in future systems.

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For further information

Roke Manor Research Limited

please contact

Roke Manor. Romsey. Hampshire SOS1 OZN UK
T +44 (0)1794 833000
F +44 (0)1794 833433

Mike Hook
T +44 (0)1794 833303
F +44 (0)1794 833616

[email protected]
www.roke.co.uk

[email protected]
Marketing department
T +44 (0)1794 833455
F +44 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.roke,co.uk

0 Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only. which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification, design, or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
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Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Compact I—IF Crossed Loop Antenna

Features and benefits
• Simultaneous vertical monopole and cross loop outputs
• Ideal for use in multi element arrays for beam forming or
direction finding
• Robust arid self supporting-no guying required
• Designed to withstand a wind of I 65km/hr, when loaded
with 6.5mm of ice and/or 20.3 cm of snow
• Total shipping weight <200kg
• Operating temperature -40°C to + 5 5
• Extremely low field-maintenance requirement
• D C grounded and protected against lightning induced
transients
• Highly cost effective DF antenna solution
• One year full warranty

General description

Mechanical description

The Compact Crossed Loop Antenna is a broadband
omnidirectional High Frequency (HF) receive-only antenna.

The antenna consists o f a 6.1m high central elevated
feed monopole, combined with t w o tubular half-loops
connected t o a l ow er mesh ground mat. The square
section lower column of the monopole is 2m high, and the
tubular upper section is 4. I m high. The upper section o f
the monopole is of fibreglass construction. The rest o f the
antenna is constructed of galvanised steel.

It comprises both a vertical monopole antenna and a
cosited crossed loop antenna, and is suited t o fixed land

reception o f I-IF signals over the entire range o f takeoff angles (TOAs) from the horizon t o overhead.' Both
antennas are passive (no built-in amplifiers) t o allow the
best possible dynamic range, and have ,built-in matching
transformers to suit 50- ohm systems.

Four arms extend from near the top o f the monopole
lower column down t o the ground mat, forming t w o
loops each with an effective diameter o f 3.6m• The RF
connections and associated electronics are encased in a
fully waterproof aluminium box housed inside the hollow
column, with a cable exit hole near ground level.
The 5 m diameter ground mat is manufactured in four
prefabricated sections t o aid transportation. The antenna
is provided with a set of eight 5m long ground radials. Each
radial connects to the ground mat at its inner end and to a
2m long ground stake at its far end.

Electrical description
Vertical Monopole Antenna

20

The vertical monopole antenna is designed to respond
to vertically polarized signals, primarily from 5 degrees
to 45 degrees TOA, corresponding to long to medium
range skywave propagation. The antenna also responds to
shortrange surface-wave signals arriving at low angles.
The azimuth pattern is circular at all TOAs. The height
and feedpoint location are chosen such that the elevation
pattern is consistent over the entire frequency range.
Figure I shows the space wave gain in dBi at 10 MHz over
good ground, as a function of TOA Maximum gain occurs
at a TOA of 25 degrees.

-25
Soteue ' 6

-30

6

5 6660
' 1 0 6

-35





.•, 166 1•0,6

40

50
-55
-80
85
10

100

MHz

Figure 3—Vertical Antenna ITU External Noise and ENF

Crossed Loop Antenna

Figure I — Vertical Antenna Space-Wave Gain Versus TOA at I OMHz

Figure 2 shows the space-wave gain in dBi versus frequency,
for TOAs of 5, 20 and 45 degrees when erected over good
ground. The falling gain at low frequencies is typical o f
broadband matched HF antennas optimised for receiveonly applicationsThe surfacewave gain is also shown,

-1

The crossed loop antenna is optimised to respond to
circularly polarized signals, primarily for TOAs from 25
degrees to 90 degrees (overhead), corresponding to
medium range to short range / NVIS skywave propagation.
The individual loop outputs are combined in a broadband
quadrature hybrid network, to yield two possible RF
outputs. These two outputs are matched to incoming Right
and Left hand circularly polarized signals (RHCP I LHCP)
respectively. For each output, the suppression of signals
of mismatched (opposite handed) polarization is typically
10 dB or more over this TOA range. The antenna offers
enhanced discrimination to circularly polarized signals,
which are encountered under certain skywave propagation
conditions.
The crossed loop antenna also responds well to both linear
vertical and linear horizontal polarized signals in the 25 to
90 degree TOA range. Signals with slowly varying linear
polarization will exhibit reduced fading with this type of
antenna. Below 25 degrees TOA the response is primarily
to vertically polarized signals, though the monopole would
normally be used for these due to its enhanced sensitivity.
Figure 4 shows the space-wave gain in dBiC (c1B1 circular)
at 10 MHz over good ground, as a function of TOA. The
azimuth pattern is circular at all TOAs. The loop size is
chosen to allow consistent pattern shape over the entire
HF band.

-20
al
.30

eel 10.6

-40

M I 10,6

ID

CO

MHz

' Figure 2—Vertical Antenna—Surface-Wave Gain and Space-Wave Gain

Figure 3 shows the equivalent noise field (END.This is the
external noise field strength, which woul4 yield an antenna
noise output equal to the receiver's internal noise. Figure
3 also shows the standard ITU-R external noise models
for "Rural, and "Quiet Rural" locations. In nearly all cases
the external noise dominates over the receiver's internal
noise, i.e. reception is external noise limited even at the
quietest sites.

Figure 4—Crossed Loop Antenna (RHCP output)

Space-Wave Gain Versus TOA at I OMHz

Operating mode

Green Trace RHCP (matched polarization) "
Blue Trace - LHCP (mismatched polarization)

There is a single RF output connector designed for a 50ohm load. Selection of this RF output between Crossed
Loop RHCP, Crossed Loop LHCP and Vertical Monopole is
performed by internal relays, according to the bias voltage
conveyed via the RE feeder centre conductor:

Purple Trace -Vertical Polarization
Yellow Trace - Horizontal Polarization

Figure 5 shows the antenna space wave gain to matched
circular polarization versus frequency, for TOAs of 20, 45
and 90 degrees when erected over good ground.

Operating mode

Bias voltage

RHCP
LHCP

-8V
OV

M o n o p o l e

Electrical summary — Vertical
Monopole
• Passive antenna with broadband internal matching
• Frequency range 1 to 30 MHz
• Omni-directional VP response for all takeoff angles below 30
degrees
100

Frequency

Vertically
polarized
gain

Antenna ENF (RX NF
= I Odb) @ 20degTOA
@20deg TOA

MHz

dbi

dBuVirn (I Hz)

3

-22

-56

Figure 5 - Crossed Loop Antenna Space-Wave Gain

Sensitivity to vertical polarization is typically 9 dB less than
the monopole, but this is still adequate to allow external
noise limited reception at most sites. Figure 6 shows the
ENF for vertical polarization.

-20
ka•

-25

•••• •nl-k -Owe

-60

6
10

-6

-62

20

-2

-59

30

-1

-57

Igobuo A N

.30

so

10

100

MHz

Figure 6 - Loop Antenna ITU External Noise and ENF

••••,Field deployed Roke HF Crossed Loop Antenna (static location - Eurasia)

cm,S0-1 ) - •
Electrical summary — Crossed Loops
• Passive antenna with broadband internal balanced matching
• Inbuilt quadrature hybrid combiner
• Frequency range 3 to 30 MHz
• Omni-directional CP response for all take-off
• Response also to linear vertical and linear horizontal polarization
• Switched RHCP/LHCP, activated by ±8V DC bias on RF centre conductor
• Switching time <20ms
• Delay matched between RHCP/LHCP

I

I

Circularly
Polarized gain
@ 45deg

MHz d B i C

Vertically
Polarized gain

Antenna ENF (RX NF =
10 dB) @ 45degTOA

© 45clegTOA

d 1 B 1

d B u V i r m (1 Hz)

3

-32

-30

-47

6

-20

-19

-52

10

-15

-14

-53

20

-10

-8

-53

30

-7

-5

-53

Options
• Monopole and dual RHCP/LHCP loop outputs—simuitanebus, no switching
• Loops only—no Monopole
• Monopole only—no Loops

•• V

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For further information

Rake Manor Research Limited

please contact:

Rake Manor. Roms0 Hampshire 5051 OZN UK
+44 (0)1794 833000
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433
esigroke_co.uk •
www.roky.co.tifs
cc

agreed by the company in wntingj may not be used applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification.design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.

roke
Roke Manor Research Ltd
et

a

Siemens company

Vision Processing
Roke's Vision Processing group has remained at the leading
edge of image processing technology over the last 25 years.
With over 250 man-years of investment the team has
demonstrated success in developing a wide range of industryleading applications, ranging from simple image capture
and retrieval systems through to complex image processing
solutions. The group's work ranges from small studies,
to innovative development projects, to full system and
product developments.

The solutions we offer build on our core capabilities:
• Extraction of 3D information frorii images which builds on our ability
to understand the complex mathematics required within this area,
• Development of techniques that can be used in unstructured environments
meaning that the user needs little prior knowledge
of environment and does not need to spend time training the system.
• Real time solutions o u r solutions are efficient and optimised, making
intelligent use of computing resources
• Extraction of information from video and image sequences—
which allows us to make intelligent use of the extra temporal dimension,
giving greater understanding.

GeViS (Geometric Vision System)
GeViS performs a geometric analysis of video imagery taken from
a moving platform. A real-time Structure-from-Motion algorithm
is used to determine the motion of the camera and produce a 3D
point-cloud model of the explored environment, which can be postprocessed to generate a 3D surface model. GeViS has a wide variety
of applications, including exploration of dangerous environments such
as caves and unsafe buildings and 3D modelling for mission planning.
ft can support a wide range of configurations, including human-carried,
robot-mounted and aerial camera systems and single (monocular)
or paired (stereo) cameras.

4o

Right
DORA robot — DORA (Demonstration of Robot Autonomy)
explores buildings using 3D maps generated by GeViS to plan
routes and avoid obstacles.

D Point-map

Pr

Surfaces

House

Surfaces with lines

The 3D point cloud produced by GOT'S can be processed to generate a 3D surface model of the explored region.
1

3D Point-map

Contours

GeViS working in a difficult environment (castle with cave-like passageways)

Surfaces

Autolanding
Rake has developed autolanding capability for both fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs. Our system uses RAPID, Roke's modelbased visual tracking software, to identify and track the landing area. The relative position of the UAV is then calculated and the
flight path from the current position to the landing point is passed to the UAVs autopilot or flight control system, allowing it to land
autonomously. Integration with the GeVIS system would enable detection of obstacles in the landing area This visual autolanding
system will require no ground infrastructure and will be capable of landing on a moving platform such as an aircraft carrier or a UGV.

Landing Aids

Landing on ship

Detect landing

Detecting obstacles

Cloud Detection
Rakes cloud monitonng algorithms detect and classify areas of cloud using video from ground-based or aerial cameras, enabling a UAV to identify risky
areas and take advantage of rising thermals for auto-soaring, saving fuel and increasing the UAV's range. Our 3D structure-from-motion algorithms can
then be used to create a depth model of the cloud cover and plan the most advantageous flight path.

Detection of clouds, ground and sky. White areas of cloud are classified as risky, black areas are safe

Depth modelling (red is near, blue far)

11P
Change Detection
Roke has developed experimental algorithms to detect changes
along a route travelled by a vehicle by companng live video with data
captured on a previous occasion. This is a challenging task as the scene
may be affected by changes in camera position and speed, route,
illumination and weather conditions. Change detection would assist
soldiers who are unfamiliar with a route to spot changes which could
indicate a threat, such as a hidden IED, and would also be applicable
to automated surveillance tasks such as perimeter monitonng.

Red highlights areas where changes have occurred

VMAD (Video Motion Anomaly Detector)
Roke's Video Motion Anomaly Detector learns normal patterns of behaviour in a scene by statistical analysis of the motion of features
in a video feed. Abnormal or anomalous behaviour within the scene is then detected by comparison with this statistical picture.
The learning process is completely automated, so there is no need for manual training of the system by the user, Originally developed
to process video from static cameras (such as standard CCTV), VMAD can be combined with Roke's 3D motion analysis tools
to process video from moving sources such as panning and tilting cameras and cameras mounted on UAVs.

VMAD monitors traffic and detects
anomalous behaviour

Detection of abandoned bag

Visual Inspection and Fault Detection
Rakes vision processing algorithms have been applied to the
automation of inspection and fault detection tasks in the processes
,,
3D modelling from video enables detection of faults in complex 3D
objects and comparison with computer models. Working closely
with our customers we develop bespoke solutions in order to
deliver improved speed, accuracy and reliability and reduced costs
in the manufacturing process.

For further information

Roke Manor Research Limited

please contact:

Roke Manor, Romsey, Hampshire 505 I OZN UK
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.rake.ca.uk

Emma Brassington
T +44 (0)1794 833288
F +44 (0)1794 833433

Detection of crack in a train pantograph
(the device connecting a train to an overhead wire
carrying electrical current).

[email protected]
Marketing department
T +44 (0)1794 833455
F +44 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.roke.co.uk

Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only, which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contr
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification, design, or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Rake Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
1
0
4
.
1

roke
Capability research and consultancy
With extensive experience in communications
systems, networks and electronic sensors in
both defence and commercial markets,
Roke can help you understand and
solve complex issues using
innovative systems engineering
techniques. Working with an
established range of partner
companies we can provide
support across all lines of
development. As an •
independent company, 'k
you
, can be sure of
Impartial advice.

Rake Manor Research Lid
a Siemens company

a. Photograph by:
LA(PHOT)HUSBANDS:
© Crown Copyright/
' M O D . Image from www.
photosmoduk

Roke's involvement in capability research and consultancy includes:
• Prime Contractor of the TeamREACH consortium— for the NEC for close combat research
programme for DEC Ground Manoeuvre
• C4ISTAR theme leader within the future Dismounted Close Combat (DCC) research programme for
DEC Ground Manoeuvre
• C4I studies in support of FIST for the DCC IPT
• IP over Tactical Data Link (TDL) study for the TDL IPT.
Modem battlespace systems are characterised by the need for increased connectivity, improved
interoperability and the extensive use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) equipment.
To realise the benefits of Network Enabled Capability (NEC) the link between network architectures and
technologies, and operational benefits must be understood. Roke and our partner companies have developed
techniques that allow this link to be made and quantified. Systems modelling is undertaken with straightforward
visualisation techniques so that stakeholders are able to contribute to and validate the process.
We are able to help you quantify the benefits of NEC and identify the impact across all
lines of development.
The use of the Internet Protocol (IP) is revolutionising the ability to improve connectivity and
inter
solutions to overlay IPv6 networks on legacy systems.
The acceptance of COTS equipment in defence systems increases the scope for the rapid introduction of
commercial technologies such as civil telecommunications networks, However the pace of development
in many areas is extremely rapid and technology will change many times within the lifecycle of a defence
system. The opportunities afforded by these technology advances and the obsolescence vulnerabilities
need to be tracked closely. Operating independently in the commercial and defence domains in equal
•' measure; Roke is ideally placed to undertake technology road mapping and horizon scanning activities.

Key areas of support for defence customers:
• NEC benefits analysis
Answering the question "What can NEC do for you?"
• Soldier systems research
- Soldier system C4ISTAR
- Addressing mounted/dismounted infantry interoperabilrty issues
• IP networking consultanq
- Resilient networking, IP gateways to militar
• Technology road mapping
Commercial and defence technologies.

b. Network connectivrtyi
activrty modelling.
c. Urban 3D radio
coverage model.

b.

Modelling the impact of Network Enabled Capability (NEC)
Roke and our partners have created a suite of tools for modelling networked systems to quantify the
benefits of NEC. These tools can be used to:
• Evaluate the potential benefits of different technology, configuration and process interventions for
C4ISTAR systems
• Visualise and compare a vanety of communications, logistics, human factors and process
performance parameters
• Aid intervention and requirements definition and support decision making.
The ability to link technology and architectural designs to measures of operational effectiveness allows
audit trails to be created. This helps to justify system solutions for Main Gate business cases.
Example I (figure b): Network connectivity/activity modelling
This element of the toolset provides high levels of visualisation to simplify very complex problems
including time-varying status, such as connectivity and activity. This can be used to calculate and compare
metrics, arid discuss problem definitions with subject matter experts.

Example 2 (figure c): Communications modelling
This element can be used to estimate communications connectivity in real urban environments. It can also
evaluate information transfer performance for complex. large scale networks in representative scenarios,
This can be used to provide data on:
• Radio coverage for specific individuals
• Probability of successful transmission
• Time to transfer information
• Network utilisation/throughput
• Spare network capacity
• Power consumption.
Developed in support of research in the close combat domain, these techniques are applicable wherever
you need to assess the impact. of NEC.



cs

roke
el

_

'Nk

qv

For further information R a k e Manor Research Limited
please contact

R

o

Bob Dalgleish
F
T •44 (0)1794 833170
F •-44 (0)1794 833589

k

e

Manor. R o m , Hampsivtre 5051 OZN UK
+44 (0)1794 833000

+ 4 4 (0)1794 833433
in([email protected] co.*
www.rok".co..01(

[email protected]
Marketing department
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833455
+44 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.roke_co.uk

© Rake Manor Research Limited 2007 All rights rmerved. This publication is issued to provide
outline information only. which (unless agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied
or reproduced for any purpose of form part of any order or contract or be regarded as
representation relating to the products or services cancer rred The company reserves any right
to after without notice the specification, design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.

aces

roke
For immediate release.

7 September 2009

N

e

w

s

R e l e a s e

MoD Selects Roke for Advanced Manpack
Electronic Warfare Programme
The UK MoD has awarded the Project SEER UOR contract to Roke Manor Research Ltd (Roke)
to provide the next-generation Land Electronic Warfare (EVV) manpack programme for British
Land Forces.
The Roke solution is based on its state-of-the-art MOTS, 'RESOLVE EW manaack product, which
incorporates a fully integrated range of Roke sensors, antennas and software applications. This
integrated approach enables the system to be configured to meet specific operational requirements
as part of MoD's ongoing commrtTent to enhancing ISTAR support for UK Forces.
Upon delivery dunng the first quarter of 2010. ProjectSEER will provide integrated Electronic
Surveillance (ES) and Electronic Attack (EA) capability for the UK armed forces. The scalable and
networked manpack system will exploit many types of enemy communications in real-time, and
provides UK Fortes with enhanced Land EW capabilities.
Chns Taman, Roke's Electronic Warfare Business Sector Manager. said: The RESOLVE system and its
subsequent selection for Project SEER illustrates Rakes continued commitment to the enhancement of UK
Forces capabilities within the ISTAR domain,"
Teaming partners with Rake include: Thales UK supporting the NEC requirements, Selex UK
supporting the Electronic Attack hardware and Frazer Nash Consultants providing ILS expertise.

About Roke www.roke.co.uk

•-•

Roke is behind some of the most innovative technology in the defence sector. Working in
collaboration with government agencies, consortia and industnal partners, it has a long track record
of responding to changing operational requirements by developing and delivenng battle-winning
defence solutions. Roke is situated in Hampshire, UK and employs over 450 people with an annual
turnover of approximately

For further information
please contact:
Russell Hardy
Business Marketing Manager
I-1
M
F: • a 1
E:

ENDS

Roke Manor Research Limited
T:
Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

resolve

,-

NI-Channel AGS
Acquisition 8( Geolocation Sensor

Features and benefits
N receiver configurations for spectrum monitoring
and geolocation applications ( 4 or 5 channels as
standard)
• Direction Finding and TDOA
• Optimised for modern commercial waveforms
• HF/VHF/UHF/SHF operation is continuously tuned
from I-3000MHz
• 37.5MHz 'Wideband Stepped Stare architecture
• Simultaneous monitoring and display of four tuned
channels (Narrowband Digital Drop Receivers)
• Standard demodulation m o d e s include:
AM.FM,SSBCW
• Enhanced modes include GSM and CDMA
(WCDMA with DSP module option)
• Low power (<20W) with 9 to 36v supply - ideal
for man portable and vehicular applications
• Optional I 9'' rack mounts for security or rough
terrain
• Standard USB2 interface for data and control
• Windowsabased GUI and API
• Integrated GPS provides location, clock conditioning
and time stamping
• Single and Dual channel AGS units also available
(alternate casings)
• I I litres r e c t i l i n e a r
• 300mm x 450mm x 90mm dimension's'

°
roke
Rohe Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Description
Acquisition and Geolocation Sensor (AGS) is an N-channel,
wideband receiver. optimised for intercept and geolocation o f
modem commercial waveforms i.e. PMR GSM, WCDMA and Satphones. It provides continuous coverage from I -3000 MHz.
Due to the wideband nature of the receiver, it can support up to
37.5 MHz instantaneous bandwidth per receiver channel; providing
capability against frequency hopping signals such as GSM as well as
supporting other modern wideband waveforms.
The N receiver channels can be software configured as N coherent
receivers for direction finding or as one independent wideband
receiver; plus N- I coherent receivers for DE
When used as N coherent receivers they can be employed directly
for advanced N channel algorithms such as super-resolution DE
The wideband digitiser in AGS employs the latest generation of 16
bit, high dynamic range, wideband ADC's.
In addition to the inherent wideband digtisation, each receiver offers
4 digital down converter (DDC) channels. There is also a powerful
onboard FPGA if for example, HT processing is required.
A small integral GPS module provides for three functions: I) position
location of the AGS unit 2) local oscillator/clock conditioning and 3)
precision time stamping of the data to a few ns.The time stamping
feature is employed when TDOA geolocation is being employed
from multiple AGS units.
The AGS units are designed t o interconnect on a standard IP
network. For position fixing at least 2 AGS units are required with
DF algorithms and at least 3 AGS units forTDOA applications.
The IP network backbone can be provided either by a wired system
or via a wireless mesh network employing say Wimax o r satellite
links.
For ease of use, AGS provides a standard USB2 interface for control
and data transfer to a local PC. The PC is used for standard signal
processing, digital filtering. DF,TDOA, demodulation and control. For
specialist signal processing an additional DSP solution i available.
AGS is both high performance and low power The low power is
achieved in part by the switched down-converter architecture such
that only the required circuitry specific to a band is powered upThe
total AGS unit requires only 20 watts from a 9 to 36 volt supply
when fully operating, however:a sleep mode is also available.

AGS is equally suited to narrowband operation for PTT intercept
and geolocation. In this instance initial intercept can be provided by
a 4K point F T in the internal PGA. Multiple signals can then be
handed off to the 4 DDC's and processed simultaneously.
AGS is also available in a single channel version with a commensurate
reduction in size and power consumption. This unit is suitable if
only signal monitoring is required o r if a single receiver channel
geolocation technique such as TDOA or FDOA is employed.

Wideband Capture
The receivers employ the latest I 6 bit ADCs and are able t o
digitise 37.5 MHz of spectrum at high resolutionThis IQ data can
be transferred via USB2.The wideband capture enables advanced
surveillance monitoring and capture o f transient o r frequency
hopping signals. Stored I Q data can b e replayed and post
processed using any of the fitter bandwidths or demodulators,

Control Interfaces
Control of all receiver and down-converter settings is via a USB2
interface on the motherboard.

Windows® GUI
A Windows® based application is available which is designed to
run on an external computer connecting to the USB2 interface
on the AGS. It provides a user-interface for a single receiver
configuration. I t allows control and signal processing o f the
received signals.The following functions are available:
37.5 MHz Wideband channel
• Attenuator: automatic or manual mode (OdB to —31d8 in I dB
steps)
• Signal level.
Narrowband channels
• Maximum 4 channels available concurrently, each tuneable
anywhere within wideband channel

The 37.5MHz instantaneous bandwidth allows for a wideband stare

• I Hz tuning resolution

across a band to capture short duration hopping signals.

• Bandwidths: 32kHz to 56Hz with 74 bandwidths

In the GSM application, one receiver can be set to listen 'to downlink
signals for queuing the remaining N- I channels to provide DF on
the uplink

• Demodulation: I/Q, AM, USK LSB, ISB, CW, NBFM
• Gain control: automatic (fast medium slow) and manual (6dB
steps)
• Signal level
• Audio output level control: automatic or fixed (2 settings)
• Audio output
• Recording: I/Q or demodulated signal in .wav format.

The spectra o f the wideband and four narrowband channels
are displayed with pan, zoom and cursor-driven signal level
measurement functions. A wideband waterfall display allows users
to see the longer term trend,
The application permits tuning o f the narrowband channels by
numerical entry, using the virtual-wheel, keyboard up/down,
mouse-wheel or by clicking on a signal of interest in the wideband
display and handing-off

Receiver API
A Windows® DLL is available which can be linked with a customer
application allowing control of and data access from the AGS. The
DLL can operate the equipment with one o r both receiver and
down-converters present.

LAN network options
Additional signal types supported
The four tuned channels support all common modulation schemes
including AM. NBFM, SSB, and CW. The digitiser receiver cards
can, however, also be programmed t o support a much wider
bandwidth e,g (200 kHz) to support GSM, and higher still (4 MHz)
for WCD MA.

A MATLAB interface is available allowing full control and
intermittent real time processing. The AGS can be connected
to any standard IP network either wired o r via mesh network
employing for example, WiMAX or satellite links,

Block Diagram

T

i k

GPS

1•

F

1




mill


I"
•• •



IIIIIMMAIMMINENEW•

3000MHz
tuner

LO

-

3000MHz
tuner

-

3000MHz
tuner

3000MHz
tuner
•••••••

•......

- •

LO2

C LK

16bit ADC

16bit ADC

16bit ADC

16bit ADC

FTFO

FTFO

Fl FO

Fl FO

FPGA OFT

FPGA/FFT

FPGA/FFT

FPGA/FFT

414DDC

4mDDC

4x DDC

4HDDC

1•1

USB 2

a

-

N\
•• *

For f u r t h e r information

R o k e M a n o r Research L i m i t e d

please contact:

Roke Manor. Romsfyi Hampshit e SOS I OZN UK
+44 (0)1794 833000
F , +44 (0)1794 833433
es©roke_co.uk
w w w. r o k o t a a
Roke Manor Research Limited 2009 All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide oudine information only which (unless
agreed by the company in wilting) may not be used, applied or reproduce(' for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification. design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval

resolve

r o k e

QuadTac

Poke Manor Research Ltd
aSiemens company

Tactical Direction Finding Antenna

Features and benefits
• Ideal for use in deployed situations where tactical use of
a Direction-Finding antenna is required
• Low visual signature 'compressed when body worn, but
maintaining limited DF capability
• Frequency range 30MHz 3 0 H z
• Optimised for PMR & GSM bands
• Rapidly deployable within seconds
• Compact folding design
• Lightweight antenna <600 grammes
• Body-worn, tripod or vehicle mounted
• Operating temperature -40°C to + 5 5
• Cost effective — semi-consumable item

Electrical description

General description
Designed f o r 2 o r 3-channel Monitoring and Direction
Finding systems, the Roke Manor Research 'QuadTac'
Antenna is designed f o r tactical applications, where
Direction Finding is required f o r conventional, LP1 o r
complex transmissions within the VHF to SHF portion o f
the RF spectrum.

2 bands, each comprising. 4-element dipoles are provided,
covering the range of 30MHz to 500MHz (low-band) and
500MHz to 30Hz (high-band).
DuHng normal operations (see larger image abcNe), the antenna
is used to perform DF and monitoring of signals between
30MHz & 3GHz.

Compact enough to be integrated as part of a body-worn
man-portable, man-pack o r vehicular tactical Electronic
Surveillance solution, the antenna can be rapidly deployed
as either a Direction Finding or 'monitoring only' resource
as required.

When in 'compressed' mode (see smaller images above),
the antenna retains the ability to be used as a monitoring
antenna with limited (i.e. lower LoB accuracy) DF capability
thus decreasing the visual signature during, for example. patrols
on foot.

Mechanical description

Future QuadTac developments



The antenna is used to provide DF relative from the User to
a target. Alternately, the QuadTac can be deployed as part
of a wider Position-Fixing system. A mounting kit is supplied,
allowing the antenna to be mounted on a tripod or vehicle
as necessary. Alternatively, bespoke rapid-deployment and
man-portable tripods are available as MOTS.

Future 'QuadTac' developments include the exposure o f
the high-band arrays when in 'compressed' mode to extend
the Monitoring and Direction Finding capabilities to 30Hz,
but maintaining the low visual signature.
Options are in development to provide a 3-element high-band
array and an additional integrated 3-element 3-6GHz array.

For further inforiiiation
please contact:

R o k e M a n o r Research L i m i t e d
Roke Manor, Rorn? 46, Hamp A r e 5051 OZN

T ( 0 ) 1 7 9 4 833000
F 4 4 4 (0)1794 833433
es
www.rotte.cd.lik
rc:, Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved This publication is issued to pro,. Dutline information only, which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
speofication. design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.

reselve

r o k e
Roke Manor Research Ltd

AGS (continuous tuned variant)

a Siemens company

Acquisition & Geo
Geolocation
location Sensor

Features and benefits
• Dual receiver configurations for spectrum monitoring and
Geolocation applications
• Direction Finding and TDoA
• Optimised for modern commercial waveforms
• I-IF/VHF/UHF/SHF operation is continuously tuned from
1-3000MHz
• 37.5MHz Wideband Stepped Stare architecture
• Simultaneous monitoring and display of four tuned channels
(Nlarrowband Digital Drop Receivers)
• Standard demodulation modes include: AM, FM,SSB, CW

Front view - DF/Monitoring, GPS & auxiliary
antenna inputs

• Enhanced modes include GSM and WCDMA (WCDMA with
DSP module option)
• Low power (< I OW) with single 12v supply for dual channel
AGS—ideal for man-portable & vehicular based applications
• Standard USB2.0 interlace for data and control
• Windowsabased GUI and API

rItffilWil mg

Mei -

• Integrated GPS provides location, clock conditioning and time
stamping

• 1 • 11

= O M

• Optional single board micro PC for autonomous operation and
•—••...mbe

control via network interlace
• Single Channel version also available

Example AGS Sensor operator GUI

• Small size 160x130x270 mm
• AGS weighs 3.9kg

Description
Acquisition and Geolocation Sensor (AGS) is a dual channel, wideband receiver, optimised for intercept and geolocation
of modern commercial waveforms i.e. PMR, GSM, WCDMA and Sat-phones. It provides continuous coverage from
I -3000MHz.
Due to the wideband nature of the receiver, it can support up to 37.5MHz instantaneous bandwidth per receiver channel;
providing capability against frequency hopping signals such as GSM as well as supporting other modern wideband
waveforms.
The two receiver channels can be software configured as two coherent receivers for direction finding or as t w o
independent wideband receivers.
When used as two coherent receivers they can be employed directly for two channel DF algorithms, such as 2 modes
from a Butler Matrix network. Alternatively AGS provides a solid state antenna commutating switch that enables up to 5
antenna DF to be employed such as Correlative DF algorithms.

Description (cont.)



The wideband digitiser in AGS employs the latest generation of
16 bit, high dynamic range, wideband ADC's.
In addition to the inherent wideband digitisation, each receiver
offers 4 digital down converter (DDC) channels. There is also
a powerful onboard FPGA if for example, FFT processing is
required.
A small• integral GPS module provides for three functions:
1) position location of the AGS unit 2) local oscillator/clock
conditioning and 3) precision time stamping of the data to a
few ns. The time stamping feature is employed when TDOA
geolocation is being employed from muftiple AGS units.
The AGS units are designed to interconnect on a standard IP
network. For position fixing at least 2 AGS units are required with
OF algorithms and at least 3 AGS units forTDOA applications.
The IP network backbone can be provided either by a wired system
or via a wireless mesh network employing say Wimax or satellite
links,
For ease of use, AGS provides a standard USB 2 interface for
control and data transfer to say a local PC. In addition AGS can
be fitted with an internal micro PC running full Windows XP
operating system. In either case the PC is used for the standard
signal processing, digital filtering, OE TOGA, demodulation and
control. For specialist signal processing an additional OSP solution is
available.
AGS is both high performance and low power The total AGS
unit requires only 10 watts from a 12 volt supply when f'ully
operating, however, a sleep mode is also available.
The 37.5MHz instantaneous bandwidth allows for a wideband
stare across a band to capture short duration hopping signals.
An example application for GSM is to employ the two receivers
as two independent receivers A and B covering a total of 75MHz
downlink bandwidth. This configuration will rapidly identify all the
broadcast channels which can then be 'handed off' to a DDC
channels, set at 200KHz bandwidth, to provide a more in depth
analysis.
Alternatively the two receivers can be configured as wideband,
dual channel, coherent receivers to provide capability (with
suitable DSP) for GSM OF.
Finally the receivers can be configured with one covering
37.5MHz of GSM uplink bandwidth and the other covering
37.5MHz of down-link bandwidth.
AGS is equally suited to narrowband operation for PIT intercept
and geolocation. In this instance initial intercept can be provided
by a 4K point EFT in the internal PGA. Multiple signals can then
be handed off to the 4 DOC's and processed simultaneously.
AGS is also available in a single cliannel version with a
commensurate reduction in size and power consumption. This
unit is suitable if only signal monitoring is required or if a single
receiver channel geolocation technique such as TDOA or FDOA
is employed.

Antenna Switch
The antenna switch matrix offers the following possibilities:
• Selection or commutation of up to 4 antennas between I
receiver, and 1 monitor antenna f o r the second. (OF
applications)
• Selection between 2 antennas for each receiver
• GPS antenna input and routing.
• Selection of external calibration source

Wideband Capture
The receivers employ the latest 16 bit ADCs and are able
to digitise 37,5MHz of spectrum at high resolution, This IQ
data can be transferred via USB2 or Ethernet. The wideband
capture enables advanced surveillance monitoring and capture of
transient, frequency hopping or other LPI transmissions.
Stored IQ data can be replayed and post processed using any of
the filter bandwidths or demodulators. With the Dual receiver
two 37.5 MHz slices of spectrum can be captured simultaneously
in the same or different frequency bands.

Single / Dual Receiver
The single receiver can be operated in the following ways:
• Monitoring of 4 different frequencies within a single band
• Capture of a 37.5MHz segment within same band
• TOGA when part of a network of AGS units
The dual receiver supplements the above:
• Monitoring of 8 different frequencies within two bands
• Capture of two different 37.5MHz segments of spectrum in
the same or different bands
• 2 channel OF via an external Butler matrix 3 channel Adcock
with switching or 5 channel correlative OF with commutating
antenna switching
The AGS has a high quality internal TCXO frequency reference
but the option to use an external 80MHz input is also provided.
The TCX0 can be locked to GPS for high accuracy applications,

Control Interfaces
Control of all receiver and down-converter settings is via a
USB2 interface on the motherboard. The single board computer,
if fitted, also uses this USB2 interface, and may communicate
outside the AGS box via an Ethernet LAN connection.

Windows® GUI
A Windows® based application is available which is designed to
run on an external computer connecting to the USB2 interface
on the AGS. I t provides a user-interface for a single receiver
configuration. I t allows control and signal processing of the
received signals. The following functions are available:

375MHz Wideband channel

Additional signal types supported

• Attenuator: automatic or manual mode (OdB to —3IdB in
I dB steps)

The four tuned channels support all common modulation
schemes including AM, NBFM, SSB. CW. The digitiser
receiver cards can, however, also be programmed t o
support a much wider bandwidth e.g (200kHz) to support
GSM, and higher still (4MHz) for WCDMA.

• Signal level reporting

Narrowband channels
• Maximum 4 channels available concurrently, each tuneable
anywhere within wideband channel
• I Hz tuning resolution

Receiver API

• Bandwidths: 32kHz to 56Hz with 74 bandwidths
• Demodulation: I/Q, AM, USB, LSB, ISB, CW, NBFM

A Windows® DLL is available which can be linked with a

• Gain control: automatic (fast medium slow) and manual
(6dB steps)

customer application allowing control o f and data access
from the AGS, The DLL can operate the equipment with
one or both receiver and down-converters present.

• Signal level
• Audio output level control: automatic or fixed (2 settings)
• Audio output

LAN network options

• Recording: I/0 or demodulated signal in ,way format.
The spectra o f the wideband and f o u r narrowband
channels are displayed with pan, zoom and cursor-driven
signal level measurement functions. A wideband waterfall
display allows users to see the longer term trend.

When the micro PC is fitted to the AGS, a data collecting
program can be run which allows control o f and presents
raw data from both receivers over the standard Ethernet
interface. This network format data can be saved t o disk

The application permits tuning of the narrowband channels
by numerical entry, using the virtual-wheel, keyboard up/
down, mouse-wheel o r by clicking on a signal o f interest
in the wideband display and handing-off to the selected
narrowband channel.

or connected t o the single receiver GUI remotely. A
MATLAB interface is also available allowing full control
and intermittent real time processing. The AGS can be
connected to any standard IP network either wired or via
mesh network employing for example, WiMAX or satellite
links.
For use with low data rate networks, e.g. GPRS or Satellite),
the AGS unit when frtted with the SBC can be commanded
to collect data, analyse and present results in order to reduce
network loading.

Extelexal Ref

Block Diagram
Rek•rence
hitenril

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F

Antenna Swath
Matrix

DWR16 Recover
(Master t

Down-converter 1

LS82
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AGS Graphical User Interface examples
• 4x Digital Drop Receiver (DDR) controls including live audio and recording handoff
• Frequency/Band entry &Virtual Tuning Wheel - USB controlled ergonomic tuning wheel available
• Intuitive .WAV recorder with 'auto-record'
• Wideband spectral & waterfall displays d w 4x Narrowband DDR channel FFT displays

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(note 'zoomed spectral display)
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Networked AGS Nodes performing DF & Geolocation

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For f u r t h e r information
please c o n t a c t :

Rake M a n o r l i e s q r c h L i m i t e d

Rake Manor, Romsiy. Hampshire SOS I OZN UK
T + 4 4 1011794 833000
F . 4 4 4 10)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.rokecauk
Roke Manor Research Limited 2009 All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only. which (unless
agreed by the company in wriung) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as repi esenzation relating so the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification. design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Rake Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be sublect to UK export license approval

locate

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e

MCDWR I 6

Rohe Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Multi-channel Digital Wideband HE Receiver System

Features and benefits
• Up to 9 Digital Wideband Receiver cards packaged in a
small form-factor, 19" 2U high case
• Simultaneous monitoring of up to 36 HF channels
• Supports 4 frequency channel simultaneous DF using up
to 9 antennas
• External clock input
• Fully synchronous operation
• Two units may be linked together
• USB2.0 control
• WindowsC)-based GUI and API

Receiver Functions
Description
The unit can be configured for different roles. When
operating as a bank of 36 independent HF receivers, the 9
receiver cards are tuned independently. When operating
as an "N-Channel" DF receiver, the 9 receivers are tuned
phase coherently for use in adaptive array applications.
allowing up to 4 simultaneous frequency channels.
The individual Digital Wideband Receiver cards digitise the
500 kHz to 30 MHz band of spectrum from separate RF
inputs and subsequently down-convert 4 programmable
narrowband channels to complex base-band.
Two multi-channel receiver units may be connected
together to form systems with up to 72 independent
narrowband channels or 18 coherently tuned receivers
(with 4 separate narrowband frequency channels per
receiver).
The multichannel receiver is designed to be controlled by
software running on a Windows® PC. Receiver control
commands to and data from the unit are transferred via
an industry-standard USB 2.0 interface. The digitiseg signal
data from each receiver card is multiplexed onto a single
data stream and transferred to a PC.
Applications of the multi-channel receiver include standard
HF receivers and direction-finding and beamforming
applications.

The features of the receiver cards are covered in the
DWR I 6 datasheet. Features specific to the multichannel
system are:
• Coherently sampled receivers permit either independent
or coherent tuning.
• Internal or external clock options.
• External synchronisation input for GPS I pps signal or
other hardware sync signal.
• Clock and sync distribution extendable to support
second muhl-channel receiver unit,
• Control and data channels to/from second multi-channel
receiver unit,
• Ganged or independent analogue gain control of the
receiver input signals.
• Ganged o r independent digital gain control o f the
nan

Software
The MCDWR16 is supplied with Windows® software to
operate the unit as 36 independent receivers. This allows
full control of all receiver settings and provides narrowband
filters together with demodulation support for AM, FM,
CVV, USB, LSB,1SB and I/Q. I/Q mode allows third party
demodulators to operate on the data. Audio output to
PC soundcard or WAV file is supported. All 36 channels
may be recorded at the same time, All 36 channels are
represented by frequency and level, whilst 4 channels at any
one time are also presented as narrowband spectrum plots.

• e o a

•.•

Block Diagram

_
RX0

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US8 2

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0 4

SERDES

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SYNC
DtSTRIOUT17111

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UNIT 0

Example Graphical User Interface
IABLI


06 155000




This unit is used as part of Roke's N-Channel Superresolution DF
system.

ma M P t i r m i n i

coo=
.911'
QUO d i k

This unit, together with the high speed interface, is used as part of
Rakes High Speed Wdeband Superresolution DF system.

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Specifications
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Detailed specifications of the receiver cards appear in the DWR 16
datasheet Specifications specific to the multichannel system appear
below

Internal c l o c k : 4 1 . 1
External clock:

80MHz

Signal inputs:

1RF input per receiver, 50 0

Configuration:

9 receivers, 4 narrowband
channels per receiver, 37 kHz
complex base-band (1 6bit
16bit Q) from hardware,
additional filtering i n the
control software provide
bandwidths from 56 Hz to
32 kHz

An Application Programmer's Interface (API) is available, allowing
full control o f the multichannel receiver and extraction o f the

Dimensions:

448mm x 90mm x 315mm

demultiplexed and filtered data

Power:

Example GUI displaying four of the 36 simultaneous 'live channels

Customisation
An optional high speed interface card provides two 15 Gbits/s sena]
links to a DSP board for processing received signal data This allows
the receiver cards to be operated at bandwidths up to 1.25 MHz
Thus it is possible to digitise 5 MHz blocks of spectrum on each
receiver Configuring the unit with 8 such cards would offer 40 MHz
so
in single DWRI6 mode with its own USB2 stream to allow wideband
spectrum monitonng.

IOMHz, 0 dBm into 500

(19", 2U high) j

I10—240VAC, 35W

OrP

For f u r t h e r information
please c o n t a c t

R o k e M a n o r Research L i m i t e o

Rake Mario,, R o n , f t Hampsitit e S051 OZN U
T
F

+44 (0)1794 833000
+44 (0)1794 833433
34

e4roke.co.uk,
www•roe.cd.iik
Rake Manor

agreed by the company in WiltIngi may not be Med, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification. design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subiect to UK export license approval.

resolve

r o k e '
Rake Manor Research lid
a Siemens company

AGS (single channel)
Acquisition 8( Geolocation Sensor

Features and benefits
• Receiver configuration for spectrum monitoring
• Optimised for modern commercial waveforms
• HIF/VHIF/UHF/SHF operation is continuously tuned from
I-3000MHz
• 37.5MHz 'Wideband Stepped Stare architecture
• Simultaneous monitoring and display of four tuned channels
(Narrowband Digital Drop Receivers)
• Standard demodulation modes include: AM, FM,SSB, CW
• Enhanced modes include GSM and WCDMA (WCDMA with
DSP module option)

Front view - DF/Monitoring, GPS & auxiliary

antennainput

• Low power (<6W) with single I 2v supply — ideal f o r
man-portable & vehicular based applications
• Standard USB2.0 interface for data and control
• Windowsabased GUI and API
• Integrated GPS provides location, clock conditioning and time
stamping
• Optional single board micro PC for autonomous operation and
control via network interface
• Small size 60x I 80x260 mm

1..pom

• AGS weighs 3.9kg

I .

Example AGS Sensor operator GUI

Description
Acquisition and Geolocation Sensor (AGS) is a single channel, wideband receiver, optimised for intercept o f
modern commercial waveforms i.e. PMR, GSM, WCDMA and Sat-phones, It provides continuous coverage from
I-3000MHz.
Due t o the wideband nature o f the receiver, i t can support up t o 37.5MHz instantaneous bandwidth
providing capability against frequency hopping signals such as GSM as well as supporting other modern
wideband waveforms,

lyt
Description (cont.)
The wideband digitiser in AGS employs the latest generation of
I 6 bit, high dynamic range, wideband ADC's.
In addition t o the inherent wideband digitisation, the receiver
offers 4 digital down converter (DDC) channels. There is also
a powerful onboard FPGA if, for example. FIT processing is
required.
A small, ntegral GPS module provides f o r three functions:
I) position location o f the AGS unit 2) local oscillator/clock
conditioning and 3) precision time stamping o f the data t o a
few ns. The time stamping feature is employed when TDOA
geolocation is being employed from multiple AGS units.
The AGS units are designed t o interconnect on a standard
IP network.
The IF network backbone can be provided either by a wired system
or via a wireless mesh network employing say Wimax or satellite
links,
AGS units can perform single receiver channel geolocation
techniques such as TDOA and FIDOA.
For ease o f use, AGS provides a standard USB 2 interface for
control and data transfer to say a local PC. I n addition AGS can
be fitted with an internal micro PC running full Windows XP
operating system. In either case the PC is used for the standard
signal processing, digital fittering, TDOA, demodulation and control.
For specialist signal processing an additional DSP solution is available.
AGS is both high performance and low power. The total AGS
unit requires only 6 watts from a 12 volt supply when fully
operating, however, a sleep mode is also available.
The 37.5MHz instantaneous bandwidth allows for a wideband
stare across a band to capture short duration hopping signals.
AGS is ideally suited to narrowband operation for PTT intercept .s
and geolocation. In this instance initial intercept can be providedn
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sg
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be handed off to the 4 DDC's and processed simultaneously.

trS

Wideband Capture
The receiver employs the latest 16 bit ADCs and is able t o
digitise 37.5MHz o f spectrum at high resolution. This IQ data
can be transferred via USB2 or Ethernet.The wideband capture
enables advanced surveillance monitoring and capture o f
transient, frequency hopping or other LPI transmissions.
Stored IQ data can be replayed and post processed using any of
the filter bandwidths or demodulators.

Receiver Operation
The single receiver can be operated in the following ways:
• Monitoring of 4 different frequencies within a single band
• Capture of a 37.5MHz segment within same band
• T D O A when part of a network of AGS units
The AGS has a high quality internal TCXO frequency reference
but the option to use an external 80MHz input is also provided.
The TCX0 can be locked to GPS for high accuracy applications.

Control Interfaces
Control o f all receiver and down-converter settings is via a
USB2 interface on the motherboard. The single board computer,
if fitted, also uses this USB2 interface, and may communicate
outside the AGS box via an Ethernet LAN connection,

Windows® GUI

Additional signal types supported

A W indows ® based application is available which is
designed t o run on an external computer connecting to
the USB2 interface on the AGS. It provides a user-interface
for a single receiver configuration. I t allows control and
signal processing o f the received signals. T h e following
functions are available:

The four tuned channels support all common modulation
schemes including AM, NBFM. SSB, CW, The digitiser
receiver cards can, however, also b e programmed t o
support a much wider bandwidth e.g (200kHz) to support
GSM, and higher still (4MHz) for WCDMA.

37.5MHz Wideband channel
• Attenuator: automatic or manual mode (0dB to —3IdB in
I dB steps)

Receiver API
A Win bows® DLL is available which can be linked with a

• Signal level reporting
Narrowband channels
• Maximum 4 channels available concurrently, each tuneable
anywhere within wideband channel
• I Hz tuning resolution
• Bandwidths: 32kHz to 56Hz with 74 bandwidths
• Demodulation: I/Q. AM, USB, LSB, ISB, CW, NBFM
• Gain control: automatic (fast medium slow) and manual
(6dB steps)
• Signal level
• Audio output level control: automatic or fixed (2 settings)
• Audio output
• Recording: I/Q or demodulated signal in ,way format.
The spectra o f the wideband and f o u r narrowband
channels are displayed with pan, zoom and cursor-driven
signal level measurement functions. A wideband waterfall
display allows users to see the longer term trend.
The application permits tuning of the narrowband channels
by numerical entry. using the virtual-wheel, keyboard up/
down, mouse-wheel o r by clicking on a signal o f interest
in the wideband display and handing-off to the selected
narrowband channel.

customer application allowing control o f and data access
from the AGS. The DLL can operate the equipment with
one or both receiver and down-converters present.

LAN network options
When the micro PC is fitted to the AGS, a data collecting
program can be run which allows control o f and presents
raw data from both receivers over the standard Ethernet
interface. This network format data can be saved t o disk
or connected t o the single receiver GUI remotely, A
MAILAB interface is also available allowing full control
and intermittent real time processing. The AGS can be
connected to any standard IP network either wired or via
mesh network employing for example, WiMAX or satellite
links,
For use with low data rate networks, e.g. GPRS or Satellite),
the AGS unit when fitted with the SBC can be commanded
to collect data, analyse and present results in order to reduce
network loading.

Block Diagram
External Ref
LISB2
Reference
Antenna
4

US82

GPSAntenna

_1



ottio

C

KD5E
AGS Graphical User Interface examples
•,

• 4x Digital Drop Receiver (DDR) controls including live audio arid recording handoff
• Frequency/Band entry &Virtual Tuning Wheel - USB controlled ergonomic tuning wheel available




Intuitive WAV recorder with 'auto-record'
• Wideband spectral & waterfall displays c/w 4x Narrowband DDR channel FFT displays

SE.


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Example - Monitoring and handoff of UHF FM channels
(note 'zoomed' spectral display)

Example - Wideband WL11-IF spectral survey with DDR

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GSM survey (further details on application)

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For f u r t h e r information

Rohe Manor Research Limited

please contact:

Roke Manor. RomseirtHampshiPe 5051 OZN UK
T 4 (0)1794 833000
F 4 (0)1794 8334333

r

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AGS Ncdes performing Geolocation

esgroke_co.uk
www.roke•co.Ok
©Roke Manor Research Limited 2009, All nghts reserved. This pubficanonisissued to provide outline information only, which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any nght to alter without nonce the
specification,design, or conditions of supply of any product or service.
fhit Is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.

locate

r

o

k

e

DWR I 6

Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Digital Wideband HE Receiver

Features and benefits
• Simultaneous monitoring and display o f four HF channels
and full HF spectrum
• Four independent receiver channels tune over entire HF
band
• IF fifters w i d e range from 56Hz to 32kHz
• Compact package i d e a l for portable applications
• Very low power consumption - 3.5W
• Low cost per channel
• 256K sample buffer capturing snapshots o f the wideband
spectrum
• Concurrent audio recording of all channels
• USB10 control
• Windowsabased GUI and API

Description
Stit
The DWR I 6 employs state-of-the-art AID conversion to directly digitise the entire HF spectrum.The digitised spectrum is
then fed to a digital down-converter that simultaneously provides in-phase and quadrature (1/Q) base-band representations
of four independently tuned narrowband channels.These channels are routed to a PC or laptop via an industry standard
USB2.0 interface for further IF filtering, signal demodulation, spectrum display and audio routing. Together with the four
narrowband channels, rapidly updating snap-shots•of the digrtised HF spectrum are routed t o the PC for wideband
spectrum monitoring functions.

Advantages over conventional narrowband HF receivers
• Very low oscillator phase noise
• High linearity with low power consumption.
• N o images or interference from local analogue oscillators/mixers
• Excellent gain and phase matching wher; used in mufti-receiver systems such as beam forming and direction finding
(see the Roke MCDWR I 6 datasheet for more details)

Receiver Functions
The DWR 16 is supplied with a Windows® — based application
providing a user-interface f o r receiver control and signal
processing o f the received signals. The interface displays and
controls the following functions:

The spectra o f the wideband and four narrowband channels
are displayed with pan, zoom and cursor-driven signal level
measurement functions, A wideband waterfall display allows
users to see the longer term trend.

Wideband channel

The application permits tuning of the narrowband channels by
numerical entry, using the virtual-wheel, keyboard uptdown,
mouse-wheel o r by clicking on a signal o f interest in the
wideband display and handing-off to the selected narrowband
channel.

• Attenuator: automatic or manual mode (OdB to —3IdB in I dB
steps)
• Signal level.
Narrowband channels
• Centre frequency: 0 to 40MHz with I Hz resolution)

Customisation

• Bandwidth: (32kHz to 56Hz incremental)
• Demodulation (I/Q, AM,LJSB,LSB,ISB,CW,FM)
• Gain control: automatic (fast medium slow) and manual (6dB
steps)
• Signal level
• Audio output level control: automatic or fixed (2 settings)
• Audio output
• Recording: I Q or demodulated signal in .wav format.

An Application-Programming-Interface (API) is available for
users wishing to develop their own custom control and signal
processing software. The receiver hardware and API provide
flexible support f o r narrowband channels w i t h broader
bandwidths than the 32kHz available in the application. The
number of narrowband channels and channel bandwidths can
be varied subject to the total available bit rate of the USB2.0
connection. For example, the receiver can be configured t o
provide a single I MHz channel or four 250 kHz channels.
Similarly the receiver can be configured t o provide a lower
number o f narrowband channels and a higher wideband
update rate up to I 8.4Hz (4.9kHz resolution).

Block Diagram
RECEIVER

LOW NOISE 8 0 M
AMPLIFIER C L O C K

FIFO
(256K service)
16

- 16

7
r

AUX
Multi-channel
Connector
0-

•RPGA
MUX
Control
DSP fns. FFT

NOISE 3 0 M H z
SHAPING L O W PASS
FILTER F I L T E R

DEMODULATOR
AND DECODER '

USB 2.0
INTERFACE
CONTROL

16 bit I/0

4 CHANNEL DIGITAL
DOWN-CONVERTER

PC/ EMBEDDED
nontroller

I DATA

DWR-I6 GUI example (User-defined layout):
• Multiple display layouts — User-definable to suit Operator's bespoke needs
• Wideband spectral display
- In this User-defined example, showing 9- I I MHz WB tuned strobe
- showing frequency markers for User-allocated Narrowband Digital Drop Receivers (DDR)
- Manual handoll capability to HFDF system
• Wideband waterfall display
- in this User-defined example, showing full 3-30MHz HF spectrum (full span I 00kHz — 30MHz)
• 4x Narrowband Digital Drop Receiver (DDR) channel FFT displaysifor NB stare on 4 discrete freqs.
- Manual handoff capability to HFDF system
- Channel power measurement
• DDR control interlace
- Frequency, Bandwidth, Mode, KO, AGC, Audio, Record options for each DDR
- live audio and recording handoff
• Frequency entry & Virtual Tuning Wheel
- USB controlled ergonomic tuning wheel available
• Intuitive .WAV recorder with User-defined 'auto-record capability

4 a DDR NB spectra

I

• sr••• • • • •

1

lal
II



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1

m a g b

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Recording control

I

0 3 IS 000



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Wideband spectral display

I

cD56;-\

Specifications
9kHz to 35MHz
(reduced performance
for <500kHz and
>30MHz)

Frequency range
eel
Frequency resolution

IHz

Frequency accuracy

+/- !ppm typ,
+/- 4.6 ppm over
temperature and 20
year aging,

External reference
(option)

80MHz

Phase noise

-135dBc/Hz at I kHz
offset

1

Noise figure

< I 6dB at max
sensitivity

Demodulation modes

AM, FM, CW (IF
bandwidth I 6kHz),
USB,LSB, ISB, I/0

IF bandwidths

74 filters :56Hz to
32kHz

Shape factor
6 (3dB/60d13)
Gain control

V.

I

SMA, 50 0

I VSWR

< 2.0: I <1.5: I typ.

Input level

I update rate
Analogue audio audio

- I 3dBm at max
sensitivity
I•

Max input level (non
destructive)

+30dBm

Preselection

30MHz low-pass filter

h

Automatic or manual, •
3I dB range, I dB step
ADC resolution

1

16 bits
4

I receiver channels
DDC aliasing
suppression

>90dB, I I OdB typ.

Spurious signals

< -92dBm typ, (input:
-14dBm tone, max
sensitivity)
,

2nd order intercept
point (at max
sensitivity)

> +60dBm, f I MHz

3rd order intercept
point (at max
sensitivity)
Nina

0/P from PC/laptop I

Operating temperature
range

O'C to 50°C

Storage temperature
range

-40°C to +70°C

Humidity

< 95% noncondensing

> +23dBm, I MHz
30MHz

I

98 x 218 x 38mm (W
xDxH)

1

l

I,

Control and
demodulation
application. API
available on request
Accessories

For f u r t h e r information

R o k e M a n o r Ruseart., r n i t e d
Rake Manor.

5

750g
I .6GHz Intel® P4 or
better,Windows®
2000 / XP, USB2.0 (High Speed)

> +15dBm, 500kHz
• < 1MHz

please contact:

1 1

+5.0V DC (+/- 5%) I I
3.5 W

L

> +50dBm,
500kHf< M H z

0

1,15Hz (302Hz
resolution)

interface

Weight

5

Automatic (fast,
medium, slow) manual
(-18dB to +72dB in
6dB steps)

USB2.0 (High Speed) .111

+ I 7dBm at min
sensitivity

I

< I:12

AC Universal input
power supply, USB2.0
cable

I OZN UK

T + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
F 7 1 4 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.rokepo.uk
•Poke Manor Research Limited 2009 All nghrs reserved. This publication is issued to provide °while 11 .,r matron only, wi”.
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied Of reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contra : • e
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification, design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd
Export of this product may be sublect to UK export license approval.

roke'

locate
Superresolution Direction Finding (SRDF)
& Adaptive Digital Beamforming (ADBF)

Rohe Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Features and benefits
• DF multiple signals within receiver bandwidth
• Real-time Azimuth and Elevation results
• Network enabled Client/Server operation
• Accurate Position Fixing of hilF transmissions
• Single Site Location (SSL) Position Fixing techniques
• Supports numerous receiver hardware configurations via
dedicated data servers
• Advanced published DF and signal separation algorithms
• Extensive display options - field proven accuracy
• Strategic and Tactical operations
• Discrimination between groundwave and skywave

Introduction
Over the last decade Roke has established itself as a world
leader in advanced Superresolution DF (SRDF) systems and
associated Adaptive Digital Beamforrning (ADBF) techniques
for enhanced signal reception (E-Copy). Recent developments
in Higher Order Statistics algorithms offer new further
approaches to both DF and ADBE
Figure 2: AX-I9 'Pusher' HFDF CDAA

This Roke technology demonstrates excellent performance
and is regarded by International End-Users as providing the
highest standard of Direction Finding, Digital Beamforming and
Geolocation capability.

Figure I: Roke SRDF Graphical User Interface

Rake SRDF systems are in operational use at a number of
locations around the world These have been primarily new
installations but some have been to provide mid-life upgrades.
For example, to the AX- I 9 'Pusher' HFDF Circularly Disposed
Antenna Array (CDAA) system.

Figure 3: Baldock Radio 'Pusher' site with Roke SRDF

The software algorithms and applications support a range
of COTS 'N' Channel, Phase-Coherent HF Receiver systems,
including the Roke MCDWR1 6 for HE and higher bands using
downconverters.

P

Receiver Hardware

Data
Recorder

Data Server

L r

Can b e run
On o r up tu 5

TCP , I P

computers

DF ( + Ecopy )
Processors
(1 t o 4 )

P
O

P

P

Audio
Recorder

Figure 4: Baidock Radio Operations Centre with Roke SRDF (image courtesy of
Baldock Radio Station)

Remote

Why Superresolution?

Operator 1
Figure 61 SRDF Software Architecture

The term S u p e r
more signals whose angular separation is less than the natural
bearnwidth of the array. Superresolution algorithms also offer other
advantages:
• ability to handle multiple signals
• operation with very few samples
• not fixed to particular array geometries

(2)
dire(
inter
for 1
accu
Pro
corr
on2
man
to 2
can
to tt

(
inter

C0n!

DF Algorithms
The MUSIC (MUltiple Signal Cancellation) algorithm is a
widely recognised Superresolution algorithm capable of finding
the directions of multiple signals (although not fully coherent
signals). The technique is resilient to jamming and de-correlated
muitipath since they just look like additional, independent signals.
The performance tends to degrade in the presence of strong,
correlated muitipath. DF results and subsequent beam steering are
in terms of both azimuth and elevation.

ADBF Options
Figure 5: High-Band Section of 'Pusher HFDF CDAA

(I )
in th
will
bear
are
the !.
prot

The software has several Adaptive Digital Beamforming options to
enhance the output audio of the chosen signal (E-Copy).

in ti
sip
will
tow
recc
are
also

(4)
sep
driv
the
algc
mu
the
stef
this

Initial processing typically correlates the I/Q data from each element
with that in every other element, to form the data covariance
matrix. This contains a complete description of the incident signal
environment.The algorithms then determine the numbers of signals
present, and using a knowledge of the array geometry, estimate the
azimuth and elevation bearings of each signal, see Figure 5.

Software Architecture
To accommodate different multichannel receiver types, the SRDF
/ E-Copy software is split into a Data Server and a DF Processor
Different Data Servers are produced for each feceiver, whilst the
DF processor is receiver independent, see Figure 6. DF and E-Copy
results from the OF Processor are displayed on its own GUI, but
are also made available over a network connection to a third party
application. The format of all the commands and results returned
Esrecorded in an Interface Control Document ((CD), to help
with development of control clients. These interfaces have been
successfully used by a number of companies.

FigL

aud

Th
Figure 7: l x element o f Roke 8-Element FIFDF Array incorporating Roke
Compact Crossed-Loop (Central Europe)

cot
ar
thE
mc

(I) Simple beam - a conventional unweighted beam is formed
in the direction of the wanted signal. For an N element array this
will provide a signal to noise improvement of up to I Olog(N). The
beamwidth for typical HF arrays is some I (J' to 4\f' and so beams
are easily directed accurately enough to achieve full gain. However,
the sidelobes of these beams are relatively poor and thus offer little
protection to interference signals.
(2) Beam plus nulls - a beam 1s formed in the wanted signal
direction, whilst introducing nulls in the pattern in the direction of
interference signals. Again the accuracy of the direction estimate
for the wanted signal direction 1s not that cnt1cal, however, the
accuracy needed to provide deep nulls requires great precision.To
provide 40dB nulls requires the phase and amplitude weights to be
correct to around I degree of phase and 0.2 dB of amplitude. Even
on a good antenna site it is not possible to characterise the array
manifold to these accuracies and thus only modest nulling of say 15
to 20 dB is possible in practice. This level of intenerence rejection
can still be very valuable when the interference is of a similar level
to the wanted signal.

of signals present, or the user can apply thresholds or adopt a
fixed count.
DF azimuth and elevation direction results can be viewed in 2D as
a scatter plot with tracking cursors, or as an azimuth scan waterfall
showing result history.
The 30 surfaces produced by the MUSIC algorithm may also be
viewed in order to assess the quality of the results.
Detailed receiver data FFT displays and oscilloscope-like plots of
the extracted audio ~Ip identify signals. Plots include a scrolling
spectrum (waterfall)
The resutqng lines of bearing can be overlaid on a map to help
identify the location of signals. By coordinating DFs at multiple sites,
emitters may be localised. Roke has enabled OFCOM (formerly
the UK Radiocommunications Agency) to link its HF Direction
Finding site at Baldock (central UK) into the European CEPT
network forthis purpose.

(3) Beam plus power minimise - this method works well when the
interference is considerably stronger than the wanted signal. A gain
constraint is imposed upon the ADBF algoriithm to maintain gain
in the wanted signal direction, whilst minimising power in all other
signals. If the constraint direction is accurate then the wanted signal
will be maintained whilst very deep adaptive nulls are directed
towards the interference. With this algorithm it is possible to
recover wanted signals buried some 40dB in interference. If there
are errors in the wanted signal constraint, the wanted signal may
also be minimised, and thus for this case the previous 'beam plus
nulls' algorithm 1s more appropriate.
(4) HOS based ADBF Algoriithm - this is a method of signal
separation based upon the statistics of the signal rather than being
driven from the DF results. The Roke implementatJon is based on
the Public Domain algorithm JADE. The general principal of the
algorithm is to analyse the 2nd order and 4th order statistics of the
multi-channel data, to provide sufficient unique measures to extract
the individual source signals. DF results are extracted from the
steer vectors used by the HOS algorithm. The main restriction of
this algorithm is that it only works well with non-Gaussian signals.

9

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S.gn•I Proc.Hlng
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. • •

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. •

tlum!Mf of

bearings

Figure 8: SRDF flow diagram showing receiver input through to bearing and
audio outputs

OF Processor GUI

Figure 9: SRDF Processor GUI showirig bearing waterfalls, scope plots, maps
and control panel

Figure 9 above shows a typical display with a number of the display
options. The data was collected in New Hampshire USA, and
compnses a stnng local jammer arid two distant signals all within
the receiver bandwidth. When listening on a single antenna, the
jammer is all that can be heard.
Top left is a "DF Result Histogram" plot showing the three
dominant signal directions (the blue bars grow taller as more
results fall consistently in that direction).
The display centre left is an "Azimuth Elevation Graph" showing a
scatter plot of results. The local jammer is at (J' elevation around
ICJ', an FSK signal iust above 20"' elevation at 160° azimuth, and a
Morse code signal JUst below 2\f' at 205° azimuth.
The display at the bottom on the left shows a "Scope Plot" of the
Morse code signal. The signal is very dean and was interpreted by
machine and human readers. The same signal could not be heard
when switching back to a single antenna
As there are currently 3 "cursors" (using a threshold counting
method) active, the 3 signals are correctly being tracked and the
three signals were cleanly heard using the "beam plus nulls" or
"beams plus power minimise" E-Copy algorithm.

The map shows the lJnes of Bearing plotted. Each respective LoB
The DF Processor Graphical User Interface (GUI) has a main
control panel, diagnostic plots and number of display views including
a map.The basic controls allow the user to connect to and control
the receiver and select the signal counting technique and E-Copy
modes. The software can automatically estimate the number

successfully intersects the known locations of each transmitter
prosecuted in this scenario.

,...._
...

( 00

Specifications

Operational example:

Discrimination between groundwave and skywave
transmissions

Parameter

Specific User communities may, as an example, wish t o
rapidly discriminate between local, low power groundwave
transmissions and higher power, long-haul skywave transmissions
on the same frequency. In this example, the groundwave of a
nearby low power tactical HF transmission, on a Line of Bearing
of 180 degrees from the HFDF array, is being received on a
frequency of 17807 kHz but the skywave components of other
transmissions on the same frequency are interfering with the
User's monitonng of the groundwave tactical HF transmission.

Figure 10: SRDF algorithms
applied to I 7807kHz showing
4 diverse signals on same
frequency (azimuth vs time plot)

Conversely, similar techniques and procedures can b e
employed to instead reject local HF groundwave transmissions,
whilst simultaneously enhancing distant skywave transmissions
as required.


seas es•• O o s t o • o s

4

•So



b

e

,16a .sbo 25•6 L4o

Figure A D B F algorithms applied to 17807kHz—Enhanced Copy applied
to Signal 4 (azimuth vs elevation plot)

Frequency Range

5kHz to 30MHz

Maximum Bandwidth

50kHz

Demodulation Modes

ON, FM, USB,
LSB, ISB, AM

Number of Receivers supported
(N)

3 to 16

DF Algorithm

MUSIC

DF Rate

100 DFsis

DF Accuracy (Hardware
• dependant)

Without Super-Resolution Direction Finding (SRDF) and
Adaptive Digital Beam-Forming (ADBF), it is difficult for the
User to monitor and DF the Signal o f Interest. However
once SRDF and ADBF algorithms are applied, the User can
then rapidly determine that, in this example, his local Signal
of Interest (i.e. groundwave) is on a Line o f Bearing of 180
degrees. whilst the interfering skywave transmissions are on
other Lines o f Bearing from the HFDF array. Application of
Roke ADBF algorithms to Signal 4 (see figure 1 I below) then
allows the groundwave Signal o f Interest to be isolated for
further processing. Note that Signal 4, on a low elevation, is
visually discriminated as groundwave.

Ose

Specification


1

<1°

Number of Simultaneous signals
in band

N- I , maximum 7

Azimuth Coverage

Full 360'

Elevation Coverage

0' to 90'

Samples per DF

64

ADBF Algorithms

4

Number of Beams/Nulls

6

Simple Beam Interference
suppression

<9dB SINR

Simple Beam plus Nulls
Interference suppression

<20dB SINR

Beam plus power minimise
Interference suppression

40df3 SINR

HOS Algorithm Interference
suppression

40dB SINR

FFT Size (Spectrum)

1024 point

FFT Rate (Spectrum)

10 per second

PC Platforms Supported

Intel Pentium 4 or
better

Operating Systems Supported

Microsoft
Windows®

1

1

111

Ordering information
Part: SPEW Number. X72/Ter/2502/50
Part SROF E-Copy Number X721TB12502160
Part SPEW HOS E-Copy Number X72/113/2502/70
Part MODWR_Server Number X721TB12502/40

For fu r the r information

R o k e M a n o r Research L i m i t e d

please contact:

Poke Manor. Ronisil Hampshire SOS I OZN UK
I + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
F + 4 4 (0) 1794 833433

[email protected]_co.uk
www.rokm.co.uk
Rake Manor
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any hght to alter without notice the
specification. design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Poke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval_

., r o k e


Acoustic Sensing A n Essential
Battlefield Capability

A W h i t e Paper

by
1
Dean Thomas, Steve Massie
Roke Manor Research Ltd
dean.thomasProke.co.uk
steve.massieProke.co.uk

-%
b,



0 Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

Abstract
Acoustic sensing in defence applications is often mistakenly viewed as either 'low
tech' a n d hence 'easy', o r a s n o t sufficiently reliable t o b e o f practical use. I n
reality t h e u t i l i t y o f s y s t e m s u c h a s H A L O
demonstrated t h a t a c o u s t i c sensing i s m o r e t h a n r e l i a b l e e n o u g h t o b r i n g
significant military benefits.
This paper seeks to discuss the ways in which acoustic sensing can be used in the
modern battlespace i n t h e multiple roles o f force protection, t a r g e t acquisition
and situational awareness. T h e strengths and weaknesses o f acoustic sensing i n
each r o l e a g a i n s t a r a n g e o f t h r e a t s a n d i n a r a n g e o f environments a r e
considered.
Overview
In t h e modern theatre o f conflict, t h e threats presented t o t h e soldier are agile,
easily h i d d e n a n d d i ff i c u l t t o detect. A m o r t a r a t t a c k f r o m b e y o n d a hillside,
sniper fire from a concealed location, rocket attacks where the assailants deploy,
launch and m o v e o n rapidly, a n d machine guns used t o ambush helicopters. A l l
these t h r e a t s p r e s e n t challenges e v e n t o a sophisticated a n d well-equipped
armed unit.
The challenge i s compounded f u r t h e r when t h e soldier's senses and t h e sensor
systems given to the soldier are impeded b y the environment. A foot patrol under
sniper fire when a dust storm o r fog makes spotting muzzle flash impossible has
no w a y t o k n o w in which direction t o return fire. A helicopter pilot, i n t h e noisy
environment of the cockpit, may not even know he is under fire.
The more sophisticated threats at which detection technologies such as radar are
primarily targeted can still be concealed u n d e r many circumstances. A helicopter
can h o v e r low enough t o be concealed behind trees and only 'pop-up' to engage
its target.
Humans i n c o m m o n w i t h m o s t o t h e r species o f higher animal utilise m u l t i p l e
senses t o give t h e m t h e situational awareness t h e y need t o protect themselves
and t o hunt. A n y system o r system o f systems designed t o enhance situational
awareness and t o aid t h e modern soldier should use such a multi-modal sensing
approach.
Second o n l y t o s i g h t i n t h e h u m a n sensory a r m o u r y i s o u r sense o f hearing.
Acoustic detection is so markedly different from other forms of detection - which
predominantly rely on sensing some range o f the electromagnetic spectrum - t h a t
it can perform a unique role in complementing these other forms o f detection. I n
fact there are some circumstances where acoustic sensing m a y be t h e only way
to detect a threat.
Just a s electronic sensors have extended t h e limited bandwidth o f man's sight
beyond t h e visible r a n g e , acoustic sensors c a n listen w e l l outside t h e h u m a n
range o f hearing. The use o f microphone arrays can greatly improve the signal to
noise r a t i o t h a t m i g h t b e presented t o a h u m a n listener. T h e use o f arrays o f
microphones a n d appropriate processing c a n locate t h e source o f a sound t o a
greater degree of precision than can be achieved by any animal.
This paper seeks to discuss the ways in which acoustic sensing can be used in the
modern battlespace i n t h e multiple roles o f force protection, t a r g e t acquisition

3
Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

P 0 1
and situational awareness. The strengths and weaknesses o f acoustic sensing in
each role against a range of threats and in a range of environments is considered.
Although acoustic sensing c a n b e v e r y effective i n isolation f o r some roles, i n
other cases it may be most effective when combined with other sensory systems.
In particular the combination o f acoustic and optical sensing has the potential t o
yield a capability t h a t i s significantly m o r e t h a n t h e s u m o f i t s parts. Roke i s
ideally placed t o e x p l o r e t h i s combined c a p a b i l i t y g i v e n i t s strengths i n b o t h
acoustic detection and location and vision processing, as well as data fusion.
The Acoustic Battiespace
The battlespace f r o m a n acoustic sensing perspective can b e characterised b y a
range o f threats and a n u m b e r o f environments. T h e threats are predominantly
either weapon t y p e s o r vehicles. T h e e n v i r o n m e n t s experienced b y a sensing
technology are dictated b y meteorological conditions, terrain, ground cover, noise
etc. One factor that greatly influences the environment experienced by a sensor is
the p l a t f o r m o n w h i c h i t m i g h t b e d e p l o y e d . T h e n o i s e e n v i r o n m e n t o f a n
Unattended G r o u n d S e n s o r ( U G S ) i s n o t a b l y d i ff e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f sensors
mounted on an aircraft, for example.

4."

4
(1) Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

UGS
c
,,—,

o z
o

IA m
(
C

1:1
=

cu
CT
D
=
0
=
D

rD
Indirect Fire

Ballistic
Rockets



.

Aircraft
= z
„kid„
0 '
-,, C

u, Er'
= D
,-,- -

c
>
<

=

rD.

•0
0
ED:

Ground Vehicle

r>D

a
u)
•-r

-cu

c

0 z

(3

Ul g

(7) g

Z

— C

= --,
--'
oa,

zu,a,

,,,

•=1:
=

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= D
,-r -

=
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Mortar
Artillery
Direct Fire

Sniper
RPG
Machine gun
Tank

Explosive
Events

IED
Fall of Shot

Vehicles

Helicopters
Fixed wing
Tracked
Non-Tracked

Fig 1 Applicability of acoustic sensing to threats and environments

Not applicable

Potential capability but no identified product

I

Existing products provide limited capability but enhanced capability feasible

Existing products provide useful capability

5
C) Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

Fy:
=

OS41 0 1
Fig 1 lists a number of threats (rows) and environments (columns) and indicates
the applicability o f acoustics t o e a c h combination o f environment a n d t h r e a t
following a r e v i e w b y R a k e engineering s t a ff . I n s o m e cases, c l a i m s f o r a
capability a r e a t b e s t n o t f u l l y p r o v e n a n d h e n c e t h e s e h a v e b e e n assessed
accordingly. I n other cases, a system designed t o detect a particular threat type
can p r o v i d e s o m e capability a g a i n s t o t h e r t h r e a t t y p e s e v e n t h o u g h i t i s n o t
designed to detect those threats.
Even where proven existing acoustic systems are available, such as the H A L O
system f r o m Selex (developed b y Roke), t h e r e is scope t o improve performance
and extend capability by further research and development.
Fig 1 i s b y n o means comprehensive, b u t i t does illustrate t h e range o f threats
and environments f o r which acoustic sensing provides t h e potential t o g r e a t l y
improve situational awareness a n d p r o v i d e b o t h 'sense a n d w a r n ' a n d t a r g e t
acquisition capability.
The t a b l e a l s o highlights t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s g r e a t p o t e n t i a l f o r
acoustic sensors mounted o n aircraft in a n u m b e r o f roles there are n o current
off-the-shelf products that are designed for aircraft mounting.
The r e m a i n d e r o f this paper examines s o m e o f the combinations o f threat and
environment and discusses the strengths and weaknesses o f acoustic sensing for
those combinations.
Acoustics for U n m a n n e d Ground Sensors (UGS)
Unattended ground sensors have been used f o r many years in a target acquisition
role against indirect fire event such as artillery and m o r t a r fire. The world leading
HALO
Acoustic unattended ground sensors have a n u m b e r o f strengths when used t o
locate indirect fire weapons. These include:
• V e r y wide area of coverage
• C a n detect where there is no line of sight or poor visibility
• S e n s i n g is passive
A distributed acoustic system such a s H A L O
short s p a c e o f t i m e ( w i t h p o t e n t i a l l y m a n y s h e l l s / m o r t a r s i n t h e a i r
simultaneously) a n d o f t e n p r o v i d e s locations f o r w e a p o n s t h a t a r e accurate
enough f o r targeting purposes. Such systems can also pinpoint t h e locations o f
fall o f shot which i s v e r y useful f o r t h e purposes o f identifying t h e location o f
unexploded ordinance.

•••

IV"



6
Rake Manor Research Ltd 2009



v

Figure 2 H A L O

Unlike m o r t a r or artillery, m o s t ballistic rockets do n o t create a shock wave from
the launch event. Hence the use o f an acoustic system f o r accurate location o f a
ballistic r o c k e t l a u n c h s i t e m u s t r e l y o n t h e ballistic shock generated b y t h e
supersonic projectile. W i t h a distributed acoustic UGS system, i t i s possible t o
locate rocket launch sites with a useful degree o f accuracy, though the problem is
complex and merits further research and development.
Acoustic U G S b a s e d s y s t e m s h a v e weaknesses w h i c h m o s t l y r e l a t e t o t h e
variability o f the atmosphere through which t h e sound m u s t inevitably travel. I n
particular t h e e ff e c t o f w i n d o n s o u n d propagation c a n b e significant. I f t h e
component o f wind along t h e vector from sensor t o source is in t h e direction o f
the source t h e n s o u n d w i l l b e refracted upwards. T h e upwardly refracted p a t h
traversed b y a horizontal r a y leaving t h e source m a r k s t h e u p p e r boundary o f
what is referred t o a s t h e sound shadow zone. Sound f r o m a weapon can only
propagate into this zone by means o f scattering and diffraction ( n o t directly) and
is greatly attenuated.
This effect makes i t essential t h a t acoustic UGS systems are carefully deployed
with a c c o u n t t a k e n o f t h e prevailing w i n d d i r e c t i o n a n d l i k e l y locations o f
weapons. T h e use o f a widely distributed a r r a y can also alleviate t h e impact o f
qp, t h e s e effects.
In m a n y areas o f conflict it is not possible t o deploy a widely distributed array o f
sensor nodes. T h e area u n d e r the control o f your forces m a y be v e r y small in a
particular region. Acoustic sensors can still have a role in these cases, b u t such
scenarios j u s t i f y f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o n o v e l d e p l o y m e n t s a n d i m p r o v e d
performance of acoustic systems for short baselines.

7
Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

Airborne Acoustic Sensors
Mounting acoustic sensors o n aircraft t o s o m e degree overcomes m a n y o f the
problems presented b y t h e variable atmosphere. U p w a r d refraction i s rarely a
problem as the aircraft can generally be flown a t such an altitude as to be outside
the acoustic shadow region. Furthermore, aircraft are highly mobile platforms so
repositioning of an acoustic sensor node on an aircraft is readily achieved.
Acoustic sensor mounted on aircraft can fulfil multiple roles:
• H o s t i l e fire indication for small arms fire (i.e. platform self protection)
• P r o v i s i o n o f a m o b i l e n o d e f o r a n i n d i r e c t f i r e location s y s t e m such a s
HALO
• G e n e r a l acoustic intelligence gathering m a k i n g u s e o f t h e capability t o
detect s m a l l a r m s , i n d i r e c t f i r e , explosive events, g r o u n d vehicles a n d
aircraft.
With small a r m s detection, e v e n w h e n t h e g u n i s t o o f a r away f o r t h e muzzle
blast to be detected, i f the line o f fire passes close enough t o be detected (as i t
will i f the aircraft is t h e target), t h e approximate position o f the shooter can b e
deduced under many realistic circumstances.
There are, o f course a great variety of aircraft on which acoustic sensors could be
mounted. Acoustic sensors are only going t o be useful o n relatively slow moving
aircraft, such as helicopters, propeller driven fixed wing aircraft and many LJAVs.
Faster aircraft g e n e r a t e m o r e i n t h e w a y o f t u r b u l e n t b o u n d a r y n o i s e w h i c h
greatly reduces the signal to noise ratio.
High altitude aircraft are likely t o be less suitable f o r acoustic sensing, although
some sources such as artillery will be audible a t useful ranges even a t altitudes of
several thousand feet.

1500

1000

500
0
-500
trP

1000

-1500
-1b0LI - 1 0 0 0 - b L U

LIU 1 0 0 0 1 b 0 0

Figure 3 O u t p u t from Roke's acoustic FIFI system

8
0 Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

One o f t h e p r i n c i p l e challenges w h e n m o u n t i n g s e n s o r s o n a n a i r c r a f t i s
minimising the effect of platform noise. For most aircraft this noise is harmonic in
nature, related t o the motion o f propellers and rotors, and the noise cancellation
techniques developed a t Rake as p a r t o f its acoustic HFI system can b e utilised.
However, once the propulsion related noise is cancelled there is still a significant
contribution f r o m n o i s e c r e a t e d b y a i r f l o w. T h i s i s b e s t d e a l t w i t h physical
windshielding o f the acoustic sensor. Roke has invested considerable effort in the
development o f windshielding m e t h o d s t h a t allow straightforward integration o f
acoustic sensors into airframes.
Mounting microphones o n m o v i n g aircraft has t h e advantage t h a t i t can utilise
existing a i r p l a t f o r m s . H o w e v e r, t h e advantages o f acoustic s e n s i n g a t a n
elevated location m e r i t using a platform specifically deployed for this purpose. A n
ideal p l a t f o r m w o u l d b e a n aerostat. I n t h i s case t h e r e w o u l d b e n o platform
propulsion noise, although t h e higher wind speeds a t altitude would still require
careful windshielding. A n acoustic array mounted on an aerostat would be able to
avoid t h e s o u n d s h a d o w e v e n i n unfavourable w i n d conditions, a n d h a s t h e
potential t o increase the available baseline from a compact protected location.
Ground Vehicle M o u n t e d Sensors
Acoustic sensors mounted on ground vehicles can also be used i n multiple roles,
and a l t h o u g h t h e y d o n ' t h a v e t h e advantage o f altitude, t h e y a r e m o b i l e a n d
better protected than unattended ground sensors.
Vehicle m o u n t e d acoustic sensors a r e already used f o r s e l f protection against
small a r m s fire, and in particular sniper attack. However, careful consideration o f
the d i ff e r e n t requirements f o r detection a n d location o f o t h e r t h r e a t s a n d t h e
potential u s e s f o r t h a t information could g r e a t l y increase t h e u t i l i t y o f vehicle
mounted acoustic sensors.
A multiple-role acoustic sensor will need to have adequate bandwidth to deal with
small arms detection, b u t also have good low-frequency performance (in terms of
noise and phase stability) t o be useful for long range artillery detection. The ideal
array aperture and layout are different for the different threat types, so a suitable
compromise has to be found.
Perhaps o n e o f the m o s t attractive prospects given a fleet o f vehicles equipped
with acoustic sensors i s t h e detection a n d location capability afforded b y t h e
formation o f a n e t w o r k o f mobile acoustic sensing nodes. I f a vehicle mounted
system i s t o b e used f o r intelligence gathering o r as p a r t o f a w i d e r network o f
sensor n o d e s , i t w i l l n e e d t o c a r r y O u t accurate s e l f s u r v e y o f t h e a r r a y
orientation a n d position. T h e r e w i l l also b e a need t o c a r r y o u t accurate t i m e
synchronisation b e t w e e n vehicles. B o t h o f these objectives c a n b e m e t using
differential GPS, although t h e accuracy requirements f o r a r r a y s e l f survey a r e
such t h a t providing this information for a moving platform will be challenging.
A moving ground vehicle is a very severe noise environment for acoustic sensors.
For e n g i n e noise t h e noise cancellation strategy t a k e n b y Roke f o r helicopter
platform noise minimises the impact of noise cancellation on the wideband signals
generated b y m o s t threats o f interest. S o m e tuning o f the characteristics o f the
noise cancellation filters will b e required f o r ground vehicles t o account f o r the
greater r a t e o f variation o f engine speeds a n d engine loading compared w i t h
helicopters - t o g e t h e r, t h e s e factors will require a n increase i n t h e adaptation
rate of the noise cancellation filters.

9
C) Rake Manor Research Ltd 2009

For o t h e r sources o f platform noise such a s road noise, a n d noise f r o m vehicle
tracks, a b e t t e r approach i s t o u s e matched filtering t o i m p r o v e t h e signal t o
noise ratio for signatures with known characteristics. For an environment in which
the n o i s e characteristics a r e c o n s t a n t l y changing, t h i s approach requires t h e
formation o f an adaptive estimate of the noise spectrum.
Even when t h e vehicle is stationary, use o f a large aperture array on the vehicle
(as would be required f o r long range indirect fire location) requires consideration
of the vehicles dynamics. T h e v e r y l o w frequency nature o f the g u n signatures
will i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e vehicle mounted o n i t s suspension. Furthermore t h e w i n d
will e x c i t e t h e platform creating a n o t h e r source o f noise o r uncertainty i n t h e
sensor positions. A l l o f these problems need t o b e accounted f o r i n a vehicle
mounted system.
Combined Acoustics a n d Vision Processing
In the natural world senses are rarely used in isolation. I n particular, hearing and
sight are often t i g h t l y coupled interdependent senses, w i t h hearing often acting
as a cue to sight. For example our sense of hearing is often what makes us aware
that someone is behind us o r that someone has entered a room, prompting us to
turn o u r eyes toward t h a t person (such cues are often n o t consciously registered
as acoustic in origin).
Similarly, o u r eyes can tell us precisely where a person is and, given our auditory
systern's ability perform spatial filtering, t h i s aids intelligibility when engaged i n
conversation in a noisy environment (the "cocktail party effect").
In t h e same way, a tightly coupled electronic acoustic and vision sensor system is
likely to result a far greater capability than separate systems, o r even a system in
which outputs of independent sensors are simply fused.
An acoustic system can be used t o direct a camera system with a limited field o f
view t o w a r d p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s o r t a r g e t s . S i m i l a r l y, a v i s i o n s y s t e m u t i l i s i n g
processing such as Roke's Video Motion Anomaly Detection ( V M A D ) software can
be used t o direct a h i g h l y directional electronically steerable microphone a r r a y
such as Roke's Universal Microphone.

Figure 4 Universal Microphone

10
C) Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

The f u s i o n o f acoustic a n d optical d a t a a l s o h a s e n o r m o u s potential i n b o t h
reducing false alarm rates in threat/target detection. Alternatively detection rates
can b e improved b y u s i n g t h e g r e a t e r confidence t h a t comes f r o m combining
independent sensing m o d e s t o identify threats/targets t h a t w o u l d b e marginal
detections at best in either sensing system alone.
Conclusions
Acoustic sensing in defence applications is often mistakenly viewed as either 'low
tech' and hence 'easy', o r as n o t sufficiently reliable t o b e o f use. I n reality the
utility o f system such a s H A L O
acoustics is more t h a n reliable enough t o bring h u g e benefits (often unforeseen
by t h e designers). Furthermore, continued research a n d development will bring
improved performance a n d allow acoustics t o b e used against a w i d e r range o f
threats and in a wider range of roles and environments.
Perhaps t h e greatest improvements (beyond t h e current state o f the a r t ) i n t h e
utility o f acoustic s e n s i n g i n m i l i t a r y applications w i l l c o m e f r o m combining
acoustic sensing with other modes of sensing and in particular vision systems.
With the aid o f acoustic sensor systems the modern soldier can sense beyond the
hillside, be aware o f hidden threats, even in poor visibility o r total darkness, and
be m o r e certain t h a t t h e information given t o h i m b y o t h e r sensors i s reliable.
Just as a soldier without hearing is vulnerable t o stealthy attack f r o m behind, a
military wholly reliant on optical o r electromagnetic sensing will always have gaps
in its ability to detect threats.

Sr

11
C) Roke Manor Research Ltd 2009

At:

roke

•••
Rake Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Intelligent Power 8( Resource Management
Roke's cross-domain Intelligent Power Management
capability is applicable to a wide range of civilian and military
autonomous vehicles.
Intelligent Power 8( Resource Management
• I s an enabler for sophisticated mission autonomy
• C a n reduce power generation and storage demands
• a l l o w i n g platforms to be smaller and lighter
• I s applicable to manned and unmanned systems

•••••••

200
Case Study — Autonomounoaring
The Autonomous Soaring concept involves energy-efficient route planning for autonomous
airborne vehicles, helping the vehicle's power management sytem extend mission range and
endurance. An Al planning engine onboard a glider produces waypoint plans to be followed,
which are designed to facilitate opportunistic energy harvesting from the surrounding
atmosphere, without compromising overall mission objectives. Autonomous Soaring has
been successfully shown in field trials and software demonstration. The Autonomous Soaring
concept is equally applicable to ground-domain route planning in which the vehicle must
avoid some regions (marshes and lakes etc) and prefer to travel through other regions, for
example, those offering better traction,

- •
to.

Autonomous Soaring ground station user interface
showing areas of rising air (red). falling air (blue) and
the current planned route segment (arrow)

The Autonomous Soaring prototype development was supported by the Ministry of Defence
within the Propulsion. Power generation and Energy Management (PPEM) theme of the
Systems Engineering for Autonomous Systems Defence Technology Centre (SEAS DTC).

Tnals of Autonomous Soanng software used a cloud tracking camera for localisation of thermals and a two man glider was used as a surrogate UAV

Power & Energy Management
911.1111r

Power and energy management is a significant engineering challenge
for the present and the future. Key concerns addressed by power
management include cost of fuel usage and operations logistics for
both manned and unmanned systems: future systems should be more
efficient, require reduced direct control and be capable of increased
self management without human intervention. Intelligent power
management is an enabler for sophisticated mission autonomy.

What is Intelligent Power Management?
Conventional system architectures treat subsystem power requirements as independent and therefore often design for the worst-case
use of "everything on simuitaneously". By judicious scheduling of power consuming equipment, an overall mission can be carried out
using significantly less power storage or generation equipment than would be conventionally required. This allows platforms to be smaller
and lighter, reducing traction power requirements too. Furthermore, desirable mid-life enhancements can sometimes require more
power than the platform can deliver whilst still keeping all.the other subsystems running. Plan monitoring and efficient automated plan
repair helps to ensure that the mission objectives can still be met despite a changing environment.

Power-Aware Mission Planning
A key challenge for an intelligent power management system is the need to plan in dynamic and unstructured domains. We have
developed architectures and algorithms for modelling the world and for dynamic reasoning at multiple levels to generate and maintain
robust mission plans. Our Al algorithms for power management are naturally domain independent, and may be tailored for domainspecific applications such as unmanned autonomous vehicle systems. Since traction is often a major power consumer, our approach to
Intelligent Power Management incorporates intelligent route planning.
For further information

Roke Manor Research Limited

please contact:

Rake Manor. Romsey. Hampshire 5051 OZN UK
I + 4 4 (0)1794 133000
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.roke.co.uk

Mike Hook
T +44 (0)1794 833303
F +44 (0)1794 833616
[email protected]
Marketing department
T +44 (0)1794 833455
F +44 (0)1794 833433
infol§roke.co.uk
www.roke.co.uk

C)Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only. which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification, design, or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
1
0
3
.
1

roke
Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Autoland Capability for Fixed Wing UAVs
Vision based autonomous landing for Fixed Wing LJAVs
Intelligent Integration
The recovery phase is the most challenging and hazardous part
of a UAV flight. By combining our knowledge of UAV retrieval
with over 20 years of 3D vision processing experience, Roke
has developed an autonomous landing capability for fixed
wing UAVs.
Key Features and Benefits
• Requires no ground infrastructure — self contained landing capability
• Lands on a moving platform
• Works in a GPS denied environment
• Compiles database of potential emergency landing sites along flight path
• Exploits low cost sensors
• Compact system
• Passive system — covert operation
• Interfaces with flight control system or autopilot
• Detects obstacles on landing area

"?c)
Our system uses video from a UAV mounted camera to identify
the landing area, then calculates the relative position of the UAV.

'Pt

The flight path from the current position to the landing point
is then calculated.This information is passed to the autopilot or
flight control system.The UAV is then flown along the calculated
trajectory allowing the UAV to land autonomously.
Provides capability for fixed wing UAVs landing onto:
• Runways
• Temporary landing areas
• Aircraft Carriers
• Land Vehicles
The system uses RAPiD. Roke's model-based visual tracking
software. RAPID tracks pre-specified structures including 3D
objects — such as buildings, ships — and 2D objects including
painted markings.The autoland system calculates the position and
orientation of the UAV relative to the landing area.

To discuss how this capability can be integrated into
your platform contact us by using the details below

Other Datasheets of Interest:
Miniature Radar Altimeter
Autoland Capability for Rotary Wing UAVs

For further information R a k e
please contact:

R

Robert Whitehouse
T +44 (0)1794 833372
F +44 (0)1794 833433

o

k
F

Manor Research Limited

e
Manor, Romset. Hampshire 505 I OZN UK
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
+ 4 4 (0)1794 833433
info©rokecomk
www.roke.co.uk

[email protected]
Roke Manor Research Umited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only, which (unless
Marketing department a g r e e d by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
T +44 (0)1794 833455
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
F +44 (0)1794 833433
specification.design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
[email protected]
T h i s
is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
www.roke.co.uk E x p o r t of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
0
8
0
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2

roke
Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Autoland Capability for Rotary Wing UAVs
Vision based autonomous landing for Rotary Wing UAVs
Intelligent Integration
The recovery phase is the most challenging and hazardous part
of a UAV flight. By combining our knowledge of UAV retrieval
with over 20 years of 3D vision processing experience, Roke
has developed auto-landing capability for V-TOL UAVs.
Key Features and Benefits
• Requires no ground infrastructure — self contained landing capability
• Lands on a moving platform
• Works in a GPS denied environment
• Compiles database of potential emergency landing sites, along flight path
• Exploits low cost sensors
• Compact system
• Passive system— covert operation
• Interfaces with flight control system or autopilot
• Detects obstacles on landing area

et

Our system visually identifies the landing area, then calculates the
position of the UAV relative to the landing area.
The flight path from the current position to the landing point
is then calculated.This information is passed to the autopilot or
flight control system•The UAV is then flown along the calculated
trajectory allowing the UAV to perform a successful landing.
Provides capability for rotary wing UAVs landing onto:
• Helipads
• Temporary landing areas
• Maritime Platforms
• Land Vehicles
The system uses RAPID, Roke's model-based visual tracking
software. RAPID tracks pre-specified structures including 3D
objects — such as buildings, ships — and 2D objects including
painted markings.The auto land system calculates the position
and orientation of the UAV relative to the landing area.

To discuss how this capability can be integrated into
your platform contact us by using the details below

Other Datasheets of Interest:
Miniature Radar Altimeter
Autoland Capability for Fixed Wing UAVs

.10

For further information R o k e
please contact:

R

Robert Whitehouse
T +44 (0)1794 833372
F +44 (0)1794 833433

o

k
F

Manor Research Limited

e
Manor. Romsuy, Hampshire SOS1 OZN UK
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
+ 4 4 (0)1794 833433
info©roke.co.uk
www.roke.co.uk

autoland©roke.co.uk
(D Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only. which (unless
Marketing department a g r e e d by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
T +44 (0)1794 833455
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
F +44 (0)1794 833433
specification, design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
[email protected]
T
h
i
s
is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
www.roke.co.uk E x p o r t of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
0
8
1
2

°
roke
tt

a

Roke Manor Research Ltd
Siemens company

Miniature Radar Altimeter
A/RA Type 2 — 0.2
The highly precise Miniature Radar Altimeter (MRA) Type 2 is the
worldis smallest, low cost, lightweight, short-range radar altimeter. The
MRA Type 2, which builds on the success of the MRA Type I, is a
unique product primarily aimed at the Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV)
and Aerial Target markets. The Type 2 operates at a lower altitude
with a higher precision and incorporates an integrated antenna making
the entire unit even more uniquely compact. It is ideal for use as an aid
to Vertical Take Off and Landing ( V
Key Features
• world leading resolution
• Compact unit with integrated antenna
• Low cost
• Lightweight and low power consumption
• Superior reliability
• RoHS compliant
• Ease of installation
• Designed to meet RTCNDO- 160

••%

7

MRA Type 2 —system specOcation

It

Altitude
.orn,nal Range

0

.

2

to 100m

Resolution
Default

0

.

0

2

m

Physc
ial 1111111111
Length

1

Width

4

0

7

Height

4

Weight

mm

5

mm

6

4

0

mm

0

g

Integrated antenna dimensions
Length

1

Width

2
8

,

6

.

mm

6

mm

Applications
Environmental

• Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
• Vertical Take Off and Landing (VTOL)
• Aehal targets
• Terrain Awareness and Warning System
(TAWS)
• Wave height monitoring
• Surveying applications
• Airborne mapping

1

Temperature

-40°C to +55°C operational
-40°C to !85°C
!85°C storage

Qualification

MIL-STD-810F

System power requirements
9 VDC to 32 VDC
Normal consumption 3W
Peak consumption 7W

Inp.". Power

Interfaces

1

••11L
RS232 (R5485 and R5422 options are
available on request)

Sinalling and control

I0 Hz (100 ms)

Attrtude update
4.

RF specification ! P P P
Frequency

76 to 77 GHz

R.Foutput power

* I I dem nominal

Antenna 3dB beamwicith

20' to 40" (regular pattern dependent on
installation)

' Antenna gain

I

D

dBi
Figure: MRA Type 2 Integrated Antenna

" Warranty and Safety
Warranty

12 Months

Hazardous Substances

RoHS compliant

The specification is typical of the performance that can be
expected when the system is fitted in a UAV environment.
Actual performance will be influenced by the specific
operating environment,

For further information R o h e Manor Research Limited
please contact:
Dr Donald Hardie

R

o

k

e
T
F

Manor, Romset Hampshire 5051 OZN UK
+44 (0)1794 833000
+44 (0)1794 833433

+44 (0)1794 833125 i n f o © r o k e . c o . u k
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433 w w w . r o k e c o . u k
donaId hardi [email protected]
Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to pride outline information only. which (unless
Marketing department a g r e e d by the company in wilting) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
T +44 (0)1794 833455
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
F +44 (0)1794 833433
specification. design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
[email protected]
T h i s
is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
www.roke.co.uk E x p o r t of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
0
6
8
4
'2:5M ' 2 4 3 4

roke

"krk, 4 t :
-

Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Miniature Radar Altimeter
MRA Type I — I .5-700m range
The Miniature Radar Altimeter (MRA) Type I is a market leading
product primarily aimed at Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) and
airborne/aerial targets. Precise altitude Above Ground Level (AGL)
measurements from the MRA Type c a n provide information
to automatic flight control, instrumentation systems, plus Terrain
Awareness and Warning Systems (TAWS).
Key Features
• Compact
• Low cost
• Lightweight and low power
• Superior reliability
• Single compact antenna
• RoHS compliant
• Ease of installation

12
/

• Designed to meet RTCNDO- 160

r
I r.

h/A

3C--1
M RA Type I — system speccation
Altitude
Nominal Range

1,5 to 700m

Resolution
Normal

0.5m (1.5 to 700m)

High

0.125m (1.5 to 100m)

Low

5m (1.5 to 700m)

Automatic Resolution Selection

Automatically selects the resolution for
optimum performance

Physical
Length

1 1 1 1 1 1 r o l l A l o •
140mm

Width

75 mm

Height

46 mm

Weight

400g

External antenna dimensions
Length

140mm

Width

75mm

Height

IOmm

Applications
• Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs)
• Aerial targets
• Vertical take off and landing (VTOL)
• Terrain Awareness and Warning
System (TAWS)
• Wave height monitoring
• Surveying applications

Environmental
Temperature

-40°C to + 5 5
-40°C to +85'C storage

Qualification

MIL-STD-810F

S A I L power requirements
Input Power

Interfaces

9 VDC to 32 VDC
Normal consumption 3W
Peak consumption 7W

101110

4

1

Signalling and control

RS232 (R5485 and RS422 options are
available on request)

Altitude update

10 Hz (100 ms)

RFconnector types

TNC 50ohm

RF specification
Frequency

4.2 to 4.4 GHz

RF output power

+17 dBm nominal

N.Antenna 3dB beamwidth
Antenna gain

,

70" typical nominal (regular pattern)
6 dBi

Warranty and Safety
Warranty

12 Months

Hvardous Substances

RoHS compliant

For further information

Roke Manor Research Limited

please contact

Roke Manor, Romsey, Hampshire S051 OZN UK
T 4 4 4 (0)1794 833000
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433
info©roke.co.uk
www.roke.co.uk

Dr Donald Hardie
T +44 (0)1794 833125
F +44 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
Marketing department
T +44 (0)1794 833455
F +44 (0)1794 833433
34
[email protected]
www.roke.co.uk

Figure: MRA Type I Antenna

The specification is typical of the performance that can be
expected when the system is fitted in a UAV environment.
Actual performance will be influenced by the specific
operating environment.

Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. Al rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only, which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used. applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification,design. or conditions of supply of any product or service.
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
0
6
6
4
4

roke

ukk, 4 t :


Rake Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

GPS protection
Roke Manor Research provides technology t o protect
military systems f r o m jamming. A particular example
of this is GPS where the latest techniques are used
to give the maximum protection and provide jammer
direction information.

Background
Roke Manor Research has a wealth o f experience in the
development o f adaptive array technology. O n e specific
application area o f this is the protection o f GPS. GPS is
now extensively used in many systems for both timing and
navigation.The low level satellite signals used in GPS make
it especially vulnerable to low power jammers.
GPS receiver systems can be protected from interference
using an adaptive array (controlled radiation pattern
antenna — CRPA) t o null jamming signals. The electronics
employed t o do this can be implemented using analogue
or digital technology. Rake has recently exploited RF
ASIC techniques t o enable l o w cost, size, weight and
power solutions to be achieved using analogue techniques.
Exploiting fast real-time DSP (Digital Signal Processing)
techniques offers increased performance due to:
• Much higher level o f wideband cancellation by using
Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP)
• Improved satellite availability by beamsteering on the
individual satellite signals
• Direction finding of the jamming signals

"Ekk,

Benefits
Integrating an analogue solution in an RE ASIC enables
a compact solution t o be achieved that avoids the size
and power requirements o f multiple analogue t o digital
conversions and high speed signal processing. However
digital technology considerably improves the performance
over an analogue system by maximising the signal t o
interference plus noise ratio. Analogue systems simply
minimise the interference plus noise and the gain provided
to the GPS satellites is relatively arbitrary. Forming beams
in the direction of each GPS satellite maximises the signal
to noise ratio in the absence of jamming. When jamming is
present the beams are maintained but additional deep nulls
are formed on the jammers. A digital processing approach
enables each beamforming weight t o be implemented
as an adaptive transversal filter, allowing multipath and
antenna frequency effects t o be compensated and thus
permitting much higher levels o f wideband cancellation
to be achieved, Also with the digital implementation the
required beamforming weights are directly computed,
avoiding the longer convergence times associated with
analogue control loops.

Analogue canceller implemented in an RF ASIC

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Small footprint CRPA with analogue canceller
integrated into its base

As well as developing the DSP, Roke has experience in
solving many of the associated issues in successfully adding
CPS protection to a platform.These include:
• The design o f small footprint antennas f o r confined
locations
• The design of larger, higher performance antenna arrays
for larger platforms

Single card implementing 8 STAR beamforrners

• The use of Epsilon for assessing the likely performance of
different antenna sites on a platform

LI Curromilmtla Jammer NW

• The use of fibre optics for when the antenna array and
the adaptive array electronics can be distantly sited
• The integration of the adaptive array electronics into RE
and digital ASiCs
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Our services
We can p r o v i d e feasibility studies, modelling a n d
simulations, technology demonstrators, prototypes, product
development and small volume production t o meet your
requirements,

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For further information

R o k e Manor Research Limited

please contact

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Mike Wells
F
T +44 (0)1794 833407
F +44 (0)1794 833433

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Manor, Romsiy, Hampshire SOS I OZN UK
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
+ 4 4 (0)1794 833433
info©roketo,uk
wwwroke.co.uk

mike.wells©rokecauk
0 Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only whith (unless
Marketing department a g r e e d by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
T +44 (0)1794 833455
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
34
F +44 (0)1794 833433
specification.design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
[email protected]
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is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
www.rokeco.uk E x p o r t of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
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Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Video Motion Anomaly Detection (VMAD)
As CCTV systems become commonplace in security, traffic monitoring and
safety, improved methods are needed to monitor
these systems provide. Roke Manor Research's novel image-processing system,
VMAD, provides a simple and flexible way of monitoring a range of CCTV
applications, thereby improving the efficiency of staff and CCTV resources.
VMAD's features include:

.1

Automatic learning, detection and analysis:
VMAD's inteliigent learning capability eliminates the need to programme detection schemes for events which are
difficult to define or foresee, resulting in:
• Reduced set-up overheads for individual cameras—simply plug in the video feed and the monitoring begins
• Adjustment to new behaviour as it becomes commonplace, screening out alarms which are no longer relevant
• More effective policing—provides an early alert based on suspicious behaviour,
• Accommodation of drift in system parameters overtime.
Analyses image features rather than changes:
• Changes in illumination levels have minimal impact on performance
• Suitable for indoor and outdoor use in varying image brightness
• No training required to recognise objects or events of interest
Analyses the characteristics of hundreds of features every frame:
• Detects abnormal motion even where motion is present
• Can be used in situations where different types of movement occur within the scene
• Features can be used to deterrnine camera motion —meaning VMAD can be applied to moving camera solutions
Integrates with existing CCTV infrastructure:
• Digital or analogue feeds
• Configurable alarm triggers

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What can VMAD detect?
VMAD detects anomalous behaviour, which varies from scene to scene. Typical examples of scenarios in which VMAD could be
deployed include:
• Traffic travelling the wrong way on one-way roads, or traffic on the wrong side
of a dual carriageway
• Pedestrians or animals in road tunnels or on roads
• Intruders climbing over a fence
• Somebody running in an area where people usually walk
• Swerving vehicles
• Pedesthans crossing railway lines
• Traffic coming to a haft in amongst normally flowing traffic
• Excessive speeding, for example near school gates.
Our research team has a unique breadth of skills in image processing, including feature extraction, pattern recognition and image
enhancement. We developed the award-winning Hawk-Eye ball-tracking technology that revolutionised the TV coverage of Test cricket.
We also have expertise in CC I V, security and transport applications and 3D computer vision for robotics and instrumentation,
We understand the need for efficient, real time, processing algorithms and robust techniques able to handle data from real-life situations,
and know that these must be implemented in end-to-end systems to meet customers' exact requirements.
Roke's portfolio of image processing techniques are used to extract meaningful information from video and 2D or 3D images.
These image processing techniques can be customised to your needs and include real time extraction so data can be obtained from
live video feeds.
For further information on Roke's capabilities in image processing, please contact us.

• H o w VMAD works
Unlike conventional video motion detectors which require manual programming to define
areas of interest and motion parameters. VMAD learns the 'normal movements in a scene
and triggers an alert when unusual activity occurs.
This intelligent and flexible labour reduction tool can be used in a wide range of CCTV and
security applications. Using a combination of real time alerts and active video recording staff
can both react to events as they occur and easily locate past events when needed.

For further Information

Roke M a n o r Research Limited

please contact:

Roke Manor. Romsey, Hampshire 5051 OZN UK
I + 4 4 (0)1794 813000
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.rokeco.uk

Emma Brassington

T
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+44 (0)1794 833288
+44 (0)1794 833433

ern [email protected]
Marketing d e p a r t m e n t

T
F

+44 (0)1794 833455
+44 (0)1794 833433

[email protected]_uk
www.rokeco.uk

0 Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide outline information only. which (unless
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used. applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification. design, or conditions of supply of any product or service
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
0
1
0
6
.
1

roke

111/4

Roke Manor Research Ltd
a Siemens company

Visual Moving Target Indicator
There is an increasing use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
that use video cameras for viewing action and events occurring
on the ground. Roke Manor Research has developed the
Visual MTI video analysis system which automatically detects
and quantifies the movement of vehicles and people from the
continuously moving video taken from an air vehicle.
Visual MTI can additionally provide image stabilisation;
perform image mosaicing to provide a wider visual context;
and align the mosaic to existing maps. Visual MTI can be used
in a ground station to increase operator efficiency, or else be
deployed onboard a UAV for increased autonomy.

Blue crosses—stationary features
Coloured trails—tracks of moving features

The challenge of dealing with video from UAVs
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are incrtasingingly used in military and civil applications. A video camera is often the primary sensor
on a LJAV, providing a torrent of imagery ; 1
objects on the ground, such as vehicles and people, which can be of strategic importance.
Currently, the assessment of LJAV video is overwhelmingly performed by human operators. This requires that the video is first
transmitted to a ground station over a high bandwidth link, and then carefully examined by the operator. The rapid and unceasing
movement of the video footprint over the ground makes this is an exceedingly expert and demanding task. The operator's memory
is relied upon to place in context events occurring on different images, which can be separated either in space as well as time — perhaps
hours or
obtained from each separately.

How Visual MTI works
Visual MTI can operate on any video stream of the ground that has sufficient continuity,
from either a visible band or infrared camera. From each image are extracted hundreds
of so-called feature-points, which are persistently present in regions of distinctive
visual texture. These features-points are tracked across images. A geometric analysis
is performed on these tracks, which allows them to be categorized into those that are
moving in ground coordinates, and those that are stationary on the ground (though
moving on the images).
Blue crosses—stationary features d e s
Coloured trails—tracks of moving features 10060 . =0 t 0

00 020

What can Visual MTI do?
The stationary tracks can be used to automatically construct an image mosaic (see left), which
provides a wider visual context. The mosaic is constructed from individual video images, each of
them being perspectively warped so that they are in correct geometric alignment. The mosalcing
can be extended to a larger area by detecting and acting on so-called loop-closure events, where
regions of the ground are revisited in the camera view. The mosaic can be aligned to a presupplied ground map, and overlaid on it. This can be performed automatically if suitable MetaTag
positional information is provided along with the imagery.
The stationary tracks can also be used to provide image stabilisation, by performing a perspective
warping that keeps stationary tracks locally immobile on the image.
Mosaic image constructed by stitching together
individual video frames

The mosaic image provides a wide-area, but static, depiction of the viewed ground from an
overhead viewpoint. By itself this will show an up-to-date view of the material on the ground,
irrespective of whether it is moving or stationary. A facility is provided for overlaying the moving
tracks onto the mosaic, so that movement can be seen in context, and the source video shown
alongside. The user can then view the video source and classify the tracked object as either threat,
friendly or unknown.

Future
N t Research is ongoing to analyse the tracks of moving objects. By regularly monitoring
a region from overflying UAVs, a statistical map of normal movement can be built.
Movements will be associated with roads and paths, perhaps with the aid of an aligned
symbolic map, and labelled according to attributes such as direction, speed and time.
Automatic detection will occur on unusual movement events, or the occasion of trigger
events pre-specified by the operator. This could result in the UAV automatically responding
by changing course to follow the unusual moving object, and acquiring imagery of it at
higher resolution.
For further information

Roke Manor Research Limited

please contact

Roke Manor, Romsey, Hampshire 5051 OZN UK
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833000
F + 4 4 (0)1794 833433
[email protected]
www.roke.co.uk

Maria Bright
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833483
[email protected]

Esin Torkbeyler
0 Roke Manor Research Limited 2009. All rights reserved. This publication is issued to provide oudine information only. which (unless
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833197
agreed by the company in writing) may not be used, applied or reproduced for any purpose or form part of any order or contract or be
[email protected] regarded as representation relating to the products or services concerned. The company reserves any right to alter without notice the
specification, design. or conditions of supply of any product or service
Chris Harris
This is a published work the copyright in which vests in Roke Manor Research Ltd.
[email protected]
Export of this product may be subject to UK export license approval.
T + 4 4 (0)1794 833337)

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